Dogwood in the suburbs: features of planting and care
Dogwood for a long time was apprehensively perceived by gardeners of the Moscow Region. Its cultivation in the region was called into question because of the southern origin of the plant, because, for example, the Crimean climatic conditions, where dogwood is especially common, can not be compared with the Moscow Region. However, the efforts of breeders, combined with the natural qualities of the plant, overcame the skepticism of gardeners. Read more about the features of growing dogwood in the suburbs read more.
Does dogwood grow in the suburbs?
For almost 70 years, dogwood has been growing and bearing fruit on the territory of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. The plant is the most frost-resistant of all southern cultures, withstanding winter cold to –30 ° C. However, the problem is the very early flowering of dogwood. Often it blooms in the spring, when the snow has not yet melted and frequent return frosts, which the plant fears more than severe winter frosts. In addition, local bees are still sleeping at this time, which makes it difficult to fully pollinate plants, which can only be hoped for in the wind.
The enthusiasm of amateur gardeners and the efforts of professional breeders who planted the cornel seeds obtained in the Moscow Region over and over again in the Moscow Region soil, accustoming each new plant to local conditions, brought success. Today there are already many dogwood varieties that are successfully cultivated in the gardens of the Moscow region and stably bring good yields of delicious berries.
Rules for landing in open ground
It is better to plant dogwood seedlings in the open ground in the fall. The early onset of sap flow in dogwood in spring rarely coincides with the necessary warming of the soil, which makes spring planting dangerous and often pointless. Optimal autumn landing occurs in late September or early October. When planting, one should proceed from the fact that cornel seedlings take root in the soil for at least 3 weeks, and this process must be carried out before the onset of frost.
Dogwood prefers well-lit plots of land, although it is able to put up with slight shading. When planting, the ability of adult trees to form a spreading crown should be taken into account, because of which cornel seedlings should not be planted closer than 4 m from the boundaries of the site or from other plantings.
Important! Dogwood should not be planted next to a walnut, which will not allow the cornel seedlings to take root.
When choosing seedlings for planting, it is necessary to pay attention to the lateral root branches, which should be up to 0.3 m long. Green wood should be visible under the smooth bark of the seedling. Brown color indicates the non-viability of the seedling. To properly plant a cornel, it is better to use two-year-old seedlings up to 1.6 m high, with 5 developed branches. Such seedlings can bloom the very next year.
The direct process of planting a seedling in open ground is as follows:
- In the summer, a landing pit is prepared with a depth of 0.8 m and the same diameter.
- When digging a hole, the upper fertile layer is laid separately from the lower layer.
- The soil from the top layer is mixed with a bucket of humus or compost, 200 g of superphosphate, a half-liter can of wood ash, 50 g of ammonium nitrate.
- A support in the form of a peg 1 m high is driven into the bottom of the pit.
- Part of the mixture is poured into the pit, from which a low hill is made.
- The roots of a seedling are placed on this hill, before this, for a quarter of an hour, they are aged in a clay mash.
- The pit is covered with the remainder of the mixture and soil from the lower layer, after which it is slightly rammed.
- The seedling trunk is tied to a support.
- Leaves from the seedling are carefully removed.
- The planted plant is watered with 3-4 buckets of water.
- In order to avoid the rapid evaporation of moisture, the parabolic circle is mulched with crushed peat, sawdust or dry humus. After planting, the root neck of the dogwood should rise at least 5 cm above the ground.
Video: Dogwood landing
Subtleties of care and ripening
With the early flowering of dogwood, its fruits, however, ripen late, starting, depending on the variety, in September and ending at the beginning of November. The culture does not cause great difficulties in the care, although it requires a certain sequence of actions.
The structure of the cornel root system allows the plant to extract moisture from the soil even in occasional rains. However, drought tolerance does not at all mean the indifference of culture to watering. With a serious lack of moisture, the berries dry out, and new buds are not laid. Under normal conditions, cornel trees are watered twice a week at the rate of 2 buckets per plant. In this case, one should not forget about the intolerance of the cornel tree to the overmoistening of its root system.
Gardeners disagree about the need to feed dogwood with fertilizers. Some, relying on their experience, argue that cornel plants grow well and bear fruit without fertilizing. Others are confident that the introduction of organics significantly stimulates the growth of the plant and its productivity. Nevertheless, in the conditions of the Moscow Region it is generally believed that dogwood culture should be fed with both mineral and organic fertilizers.
During the growing season, top dressing varies as follows:
- in spring, when the tree is gaining green mass, it is useful to feed it with nitrogen fertilizers in the form of organic matter or ammonium nitrate;
- at the time of flowering and fruit formation, it is useful to feed the plant potassium and phosphorus in the form of potassium sulfate and superphosphate;
- with increased acidity of the soil, lime should be added to it, since cornel fruit requires calcium for successful development;
- in the summer, during the period of growth and ripening of berries, it is recommended to feed the cornel tree with a solution of chicken droppings in a proportion of 1:10;
- in autumn it is useful to mulch trees with the help of dry humus, which not only protects the soil from drying out, but also supplies it with nutrients;
- also in autumn, enrich the soil around the plants with potassium, which strengthens their immune system and makes it easier to tolerate winter cold.
Did you know? Residents of the Caucasus argue that in areas where dogwood grows, doctors are not needed. A similar assertion is facilitated by the longevity of the plant itself, reaching one and a half centuries.
Adult cornel tree, as already mentioned, is able to withstand frosts down to –30 ° С. In winter, it is enough to throw more snow to his trunk. But this is not enough for young immature plants. In autumn, around their trunks it is necessary to lay a 20-cm mulching layer of humus or compost, and the seedlings themselves should be covered with a covering garden material in the form of:
Collection and storage of fruits
The difficulty in collecting berries ripening depending on the variety in September - early November, lies in their inability to mature on branches. However, this feature is compensated by the ability to collect the fruit in an unripe form, after which they successfully ripen.
Ripe fruits are stored at a temperature close to zero. In such storage conditions, they do not lose consumer qualities for 2 weeks.For storage throughout the year, cornel fruit is frozen. The process preserves all the numerous nutrients in the berries. And, of course, the famous dogwood jam is a wonderful way to store berries.
Pests and diseases
A cornelian plant with a strong immune system practically does not get sick and does not suffer from pests. However, gross violations of agricultural technology or excessively adverse weather conditions can weaken the plant, after which it can become a prey for fungal infections and pests. In this situation, dogwood can get sick:
- Powdery Mildewforming powdery white plaque and drops of liquid on sheet surfaces. The disease inhibits the growth of foliage and, accordingly, the development of the whole plant. They fight fungal infections by treating foliage with a soda solution prepared from 60 g of soda in a bucket of water. A solution of 60 g of antibacterial soap in a bucket of water and the use of Topaz-type fungicides give a good effect.
- Leaf spotting, manifested by the formation on the foliage of red-brown spots that inhibit photosynthesis. This fungal infection is fought with copper-based drugs.
Among pests, the most dangerous for dogwood multicolorwhose caterpillars eat foliage and arrange their nests on young branches. They destroy the pest through the Parisian greenery and in the process of manually collecting nests.
Did you know? Dogwood belongs to the most ancient plants that a person met. Cornel kernels 5 thousand years old were found in the Neolithic buildings of ancient man.
Until recently, a rare guest in the gardens near Moscow, now dogwood occupies an increasingly prominent place in them. Its high gastronomic qualities, along with its unpretentious care and impressive decorativeness, do not leave indifferent many gardeners in the Moscow region.