Description of Manchurian walnut and features of its cultivation
Manchurian walnut is an unusual culture that is very popular among beginner summer residents and among professional farmers. Different parts of the plant have pronounced healing qualities and are used in alternative medicine, cosmetology, less often in dietetics. Attention to this culture is also attracted by the appearance of the plant - due to the decorative qualities of wood, it is often used in landscape design. This article provides a botanical description and photo of this species. It will also be about the rules for growing a walnut tree, as well as about the benefits and harms of its fruits for the human body.
Manchurian Walnut Description
Manchurian Walnut (Juglans mandshurica) - a representative of the Walnut family. The culture is known under several more names - Ussuri hazel, Katay walnut, Dumbey or Formosa. The tree often develops over 200 years, reaching a height of 25-30 m. The maximum diameter of the crown is 1 m.The leaf is large, over 1 m in length, when rubbed it emits a sharp smell of iodine. The fruit is skeleton-shaped ovoid, has a rather thick green or brownish shell, looks like a walnut, but smaller (3-7.5 cm). The kernel is edible, but has a small size.
How to bloom
Being a monoecious culture, this plant forms both female and male inflorescences. The latter have the form of hanging long earrings that form synchronously with buds that bloom. Female ones are much less attractive - medium-sized brushes with a small number of flowers are formed at the very tops of the stems.
Did you know? The fruits of Manchurian walnut can be harvested not in the autumn, but in the spring, when the snow melts. It is curious that during this period they undergo a kind of natural scarification, after which the nuclei are more easily separated from the shell.
Pollination of walnut occurs mainly due to wind. It is time to dissolve in April - May. Due to the frequent mismatch in the flowering time of male and female flowers, it is desirable to plant several seedlings at once - this guarantees a harvest. The blooming period itself lasts about 7 days.
Where is growing
The name of the presented variety of walnut is associated with a natural habitat - Manchuria, a province of Northern China. The tree is also often found in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula and in the Far East. In cold places it can grow in the form of a shrub, while giving decent harvests of fruits.
Manchurian walnut has been cultivated for quite some time and today the geography of its growth is unusually wide. In wild conditions, thickets are found along the banks of rivers, on humus-rich, breathable soils. Typically, this species grows in mixed broad-leaved forests and in mountainous areas up to a height of 500-600 m. Often this culture can be found in the neighborhood of cedar, maple and spruce.
For therapeutic purposes, the Manchu variety is used mainly in the form of tinctures and decoctions.A small number of kernels are allowed to eat.
- So, culture is characterized by such valuable properties:
- a tree growing in the garden cleans the air masses of dirt, dust and vapors (the green parts of the plant secrete the substance yuglon, which is a natural bactericidal agent, and has a disinfecting effect on the atmosphere);
- phytoncides that can disperse mosquitoes are released from the leaves;
- applying fresh leaves to small wounds will prevent their decay and in a very short time heal them;
- fresh foliage is also used in the treatment of furunculosis;
- brewed leaves prepared in the flowering phase are used in the treatment of diarrhea and inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as friability of the gums and exudative diathesis;
- decoction of leaves has a beneficial effect on the quality of hair (contributes to their better growth, gives shine, eliminates dandruff);
- brewed foliage helps to cope with the fungus of the feet and even nails.
Important! Despite the strong healing qualities of the Manchurian walnut, remember the side effects. It is recommended to refuse to take fresh kernels and preparations containing parts of this plant in case of allergic manifestations, during the period of gestation and breastfeeding.
Growing Manchurian walnut
Cultivating Manchurian walnut is a laborious affair, but if you follow the basic rules of planting, you should not have problems with this crop. As for care, hazel is a rather non-capricious plant. However, in the first years of growth, it requires a lot of attention.
Video: features of growing Manchurian walnut
Dates and scheme of planting walnut in the open ground
The seedling will take root better in September. If in autumn you didn’t have time to plant a purchased young tree, you can store it in the basement or dig it in the garden, and plant it in the spring (in April).
Directly plant the seedling as follows:
- Form a foundation pit with a minimum depth of 80 cm. Cover the bottom of the pit with a layer of drainage material (crushed stone, stone or broken brick).
- Pour the turfy soil above with a mixture of sand and humus.
- Dip the seedling in the pit.
- The next step is to organize the support. Drive a peg near the hole, to which, after placing the seedling in the ground, tie a tree.
- Cover the ground with 80% of the recess. Tamp and carefully water the soil around the planting.
- After a few minutes, fill the hole with the remaining soil, and then mulch with peat.
The subtleties of care
The considered type of nut is considered moisture-loving, therefore, in the first year after planting, the earth must be constantly kept moist. Water the planting 2-3 times a month, without filling the soil. The frequency of the procedure for a 2-3-year-old tree is reduced to 5–7 times. Subsequently, the nut is irrigated once a month and only in the summer season. After each moistening, the soil should certainly be loosened, not forgetting to simultaneously get rid of weeds and cover the planting with mulch.
In the 4th year, the plant will bloom and may please the first crop. The whole period before the fruiting begins, the young tree must be fed with phosphorus-potassium nutritional compounds. They should be applied once per vegetative phase (preferably in June).
Important! Regular whitening of the trunk and skeletal branches with a lime mortar mixed with clay and a special adhesive for plants helps protect the young tree from the harmful effects of direct sunlight.
The nut plant also needs a digging procedure at the level of the crown margins, which should be carried out every year. An adult tree can endure short-term drought and a slight flooding of the rhizome. And with strict adherence to cultivation farming techniques, the culture is almost not affected by diseases and harmful insects.
Harvesting and storage
The Manchu variety begins to bear fruit 8–9 years after planting, and with good care, a little earlier. The fruiting period can be extended for 3-5 weeks. In accordance with the climate of a particular area, the plant begins to bear fruit from the end of summer to the end of September. The ripened fruits can be distinguished by their rough structure and brown color. Usually they fall to the ground, but sometimes they have to be removed manually.
From unripe (green) fruits you can prepare very tasty jam. Milk ripeness kernels should be removed directly from the tree during the period from late June to August, when their size is 2-3 cm.The collected ripened fruits are dried, collected in bags and stored at a temperature of + 20 ° C. Harvest it is advisable to store no longer than 3 years. A longer shelf life will reduce the healing properties of the product.
The maximum amount of nutrients in all parts of the nut is concentrated in the summer, so it is better to harvest medicinal raw materials from leaves from June to August. Tearing foliage without branches, spread it in one layer on a clean flat surface. Leaves should dry in the sun or in the shade.
Manchurian walnut in landscape design
Being a rapidly growing decorative culture, the considered variety of walnut fits perfectly into the most diverse landscape. The plant is widely used by summer residents in decorating garden plots, as well as in landscaping cities in different geographical latitudes. The adult tree is famous for the elegance of the formed stem and the leafy deciduous crown.It is frost-resistant, able to withstand cold to -30 ° C. The plant allows landscaping both on the boundaries of the site, and in a separate cramped area. Special aesthetics are mixed plantings with conifers. In addition, hazel can be one of the best assistants in decorating the recreation area.
Did you know? The oldest representatives of the Manchu walnut are capable of reaching 250 years of age. Up to 90 years, the tree grows rapidly, and when this mark is reached, growth begins to slow down.
Now you know what the Manchurian nut fruit should look like and how to cultivate this variety. The above recommendations will allow you to get a rich harvest of healthy and nutritious fruits even in adverse weather conditions.