Description of a tree and fruits of a gray nut with a photo
Gardeners appreciate the gray nut because of its healing properties and ease of cultivation. By eating fruits, you strengthen your body and get rid of many diseases. Nuts are used in medicine, furniture industry, for the manufacture of culinary dishes.
Gray walnut description
Gray walnut is a deciduous tree, belongs to the genus Juglans, a family of dicotyledonous plants of the order Buciferous, section Trachycaryon.
- The root system, which is mixed: rod-shaped, with multiple lateral branches.
- Thick smooth branches differ in light gray or felt gray color.
- Leaves of complex, non-pied shape, alternate, which have from 11 to 19 leaves, their length is 0.75 m. The upper side of the leaves is dark green in color, the back (abaxial) side is lighter, not pubescent. Autumn leaves are yellowish brown.
- The trunk is powerful, thick, straight, with a light gray bark. The diameter of the trunk of an adult is 0.5–1 m.
- A thick openwork spreading crown with incredibly beautiful long male earrings-inflorescences looks very aesthetically pleasing, therefore the tree is often grown for decorative purposes.
- Young growths are characterized by a greenish-gray or reddish-brown color.
- Mature trees reach 30 m. Walnut lives on average 75 years, rarely up to 150 years.
The first nut crop is harvested for 7–11 years of plant life, then the tree bears fruit every year.
Did you know? Dendrologist L.A. Dodet from France in 1909 first described the gray nut, its useful qualities, divided the genus Juglans into four sections. And also in 1854-1856. studied the properties of this plant, a Russian botanist, K.I. Maksimovich, who published a book describing a new species of tree.
The characteristics of the fruit are as follows:
- Oval with pronounced ribbedsinuous, brown shell: 4–8 ribs protrude equally above the surface of the shell. Similar species features contribute to the retention of a solid green fruit shell. It is not easy to peel a nut.
- The peel has a bitter taste and a sticky texture. Its functions are to protect the fetus from parasites, and to provide building materials for a young plant that develops from seed.
- The nut weighs 13.4 g, the kernel - 2.4 g, it is sweet with a pleasant aroma. 100 g of product contains - 612 kcal, fat content - 57%, carbohydrate content - 24.9%, protein - 12.1%, water - 3.34%, dietary fiber - 4.7%.
Culture forms hybrid forms when crossed with Manchu, walnuts, Siebold nuts. Hybrids are large-fruited with a thin shell and a sweet core, and yield rich crops.
How to bloom
The tree blooms in May, while foliage blooms. The flowers are rounded, they are small and flat, yellow-green color. The length of male flower earrings is 13 cm. Female flowers of 3, 6, 9 units on the receptacle are collected on the tops of annual branches in lush brushes. After pollination of flowers by wind, they form fruits. Fruits grow on a petiole 10 cm long, usually from 2 to 6 pcs. in a flower brush.
Where is growing
The tree is frost-resistant, and tolerates the conditions of permanent cold. Young shoots sometimes freeze, but can be quickly restored. A wild plant species is found in the wooded, mountainous terrain of the northeastern states of the United States, as well as the provinces of Canada: New Brunswick and southern Ontario and Quebec. Culture populations are found in the Far East. Gray walnut cultivation is practiced in Siberia, in the Moscow Region, in the Leningrad Region with the aim of greening cities.
Did you know? The roots of gray walnut are capable of releasing toxic substances that are toxic to nearby plants. This fact should be considered when designing a future garden.
Trees endure Siberian frosts. In the western part of the northern regions of Russia, single plantings are found, in the middle zone and to the south of the stands, more frequent. The plant is not easy to cultivate, but the favorable conditions created nevertheless allow it to be done. This tree grows rapidly in sunny areas with moist soil. For 12 months, it increases its height and trunk volume by half a meter.
Useful properties and application
Fruits of a gray nut are famous for a generous amount of vitamins, micro and macro elements, irreplaceable and interchangeable amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, which determines their healing properties.
Important! It is not recommended to include nuts in the diet when allergies to their components, exacerbation of gastrointestinal ulcer diseases, thrombophlebitis. During the period of gestation and breastfeeding, nuts are consumed, after consulting a doctor.
Biologically active substances contained in gray nuts have a beneficial effect on the human body:
- B vitamins - thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9) help normalize the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, synthesize some hormones, hemoglobin, strengthen the nervous system, digestive organs, heart , vessels, favorably affect brain activity, improving attention.
- Vitamin A helps to form healthy bone tissue, accelerates wound healing, prevents malignant tumors.
- Vitamin PP favorably affects cholesterol level, participates in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
- Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, helps strengthen the immune system, heal wounds, hematopoiesis, strengthen the walls of the capillaries, protects against viral and bacteriological infections.
- Vitamin E exhibits antioxidant effect, helps restore reproductive function.
Macronutrients - phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium help in the regulation of water and energy metabolism, blood pressure, blood coagulation, the activity of the cardiovascular system, spinal cord and brain.
Trace elements contained in a gray nut have a positive effect on the human body:
- iron takes part in the formation of blood cells;
- Manganese - a component of bones, teeth, connective tissue, helps the reproductive organs function;
- copper contributes to the processing of proteins and carbohydrates, is actively involved in oxygen transportation;
- selenium is an antioxidant, and also has an immunomodulating effect, is actively involved in regulating the level of thyroid hormones;
- Zinc - one of the participants in the formation and breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, activates liver cleansing.
Nuts contain Omega 3 unsaturated fatty acids, which help remove bad cholesterol. Nuts are rich in an essential amino acid, arginine, with the help of which blood vessels do not lose their elasticity and resilience, respectively, the risk of atherosclerosis is reduced. The product is useful in its raw form, as well as oil, juice or tincture.
- Eating 3-5 nuts every day helps:
- in the prevention of anemia and vitamin deficiency;
- recover from a serious illness, strengthening immunity.
Oil made from gray nuts helps treat external diseases: abscesses, skin ulcers. It is rubbed three times in 24 hours. To eliminate the symptoms of a cold for inhalation, use two tablespoons of walnut oil diluted in a glass of water. Helminths are destroyed by using an infusion of peel of fruits, 80 drops per 2 tbsp. l water. To prepare the tincture, take 0.3 kg of ripe milk fruit and 0.5 l of vodka or cognac.
Did you know? Cutting the trunk, extract nut juice, which resembles a birch. Juice has a hemostatic effect and accelerates wound healing.
The fruits must be washed and cut in half. Put them in a glass container. Pour vodka or cognac. Close cover tightly. Leave in a dark, well-ventilated place for two weeks. Then strain the liquid. Store in a cool place. Take tincture for colds, bronchitis, pneumonia, 1 tbsp. three times a day before meals.It also helps with eye inflammation. The use of tinctures on sugar helps to increase immunity, normalizes the activity of the thyroid gland. Take 20 ml of tincture three times a day after eating.
Gray nuts are good for any age.. Children, using nuts, protect their body from colds, viral infections. The benefit for the female body is the normalization of the reproductive system. It is useful for men to add nuts to the diet for the prevention of tumors of the genitourinary system, to improve potency.
- Product action is as follows:
- it calms the body, eliminating the symptoms of stress and nervous exhaustion;
- relieves spasms;
- strengthens the heart and blood vessels;
- eliminates inflammation;
- has antimicrobial and tonic effect;
- accelerates cure for most diseases;
- promotes skin cell renewal.
Due to its texture, gray walnut wood is used in the manufacture of furniture, musical instruments, and wooden products. Wood is lightweight and can be ground and polished. Craftsmen make souvenirs from a ribbed hard shell, which, in the context, resembles a Japanese character.Oil nuts are also used in the confectionery industry. They are also added to salads and desserts. Peanut sauce sauces some dishes. The value of gray walnut for medicine lies in the manufacture of drugs and essential oils on its basis.
The culture is grown in Russia, but in small plantings: its number decreased due to vulnerability to diseases. It has powerful beauty and is well suited for tapeworms. Parks with gray walnut trees have exceptionally clean air. Walking among these trees restores vitality and acts as relaxing sessions. To grow a tree, moist, fertile and loose loamy or sandy loamy soil is needed, it can also grow on swampy soils.
The plant is adversely affected by drought. It is recommended to plant the seedling immediately in a permanent place, in order to avoid injury from additional transplants: the plant may not survive. When planting a seedling, you need to take care of the free space near it, so that it can actively grow and bear fruit in the future.The culture is photophilous, but can tolerate the shadow. The best conditions for a nut will be near a pond, which will save you from having to water a tree. This type of tree needs to be watered every day at the rate of: 20 liters of water per plant, and in extreme heat, double the amount of water. He is not afraid of drafts, so they are planted in open areas.
Dates and scheme of landing in open ground
Planting seedlings produced in the spring in the soil enriched with nutrients.
The procedure for landing is as follows:
- It is necessary to dig a recess in the following sizes: 0.4 m long, 0.4 m wide, 0.5 m deep.
- Then the recess is covered with a fifteen-centimeter layer of drainage from crushed stone, gravel or broken brick can also be used.
- Next, you need to combine one part of the sand, one part of the compost and one part of the fertile soil. Pour the resulting mixture into the recess.
- The seedling is attached to the support and placed in the recess so that the roots are straightened.
- Then the roots are covered with soil, compacting it and mulching it with sawdust or compost.The function of mulch is to retain moisture in the summer.
- The sapling is watered daily, and every month the soil is loosened so that oxygen enters the roots.
To decorate the landscape, finished seedlings must be planted in such a way that there is free space within a radius of 10 m from the future tree. Walnut is propagated more often by seeds, less often by cuttings; vaccination is used to obtain perfect forms. For reproduction, shoots from the stump are used, young offspring are easily turned into eyeliners. Sow nuts, both in spring and autumn.Autumn sowing is more effective: freshly harvested seeds of the new crop are not afraid of frost. Before spring sowing, seeds are stratified for 5 months or soaked. Nuts must necessarily “sleep” from 1 to 3 months, depending on the characteristics of the genetics of the seeds.
Important! So that the nut sprouts and does not mold, it is necessary to monitor the substrate. It should not be moist, but a little wet, especially when spring approaches.
Nuts in a thick shell (1.4 mm) should be laid for cold stratification, and in a thin shell (up to 0.9 mm) - soak and germinate in warm conditions. Before the stratification process, the fruits are soaked for 3 days in water at a temperature of 20 ° C, changing the fluid daily. The bottom of shallow drawers made of wood is covered with wet sand, laying nuts on the rib and falling asleep on top with the same substrate.
The container is left indoors at a temperature of + 7 ° C. The seeds should be checked and moistened monthly. Early sprouting of the roots indicates the need to lower the temperature to + 2 ° C, which must be increased before planting for several days. Before soaking, the fruits undergo "dry" cold storage at a temperature of + 5 ° C for 30 days.Then, for a week, the nuts are left in water, at a temperature of + 20 ° C, until the shell is opened. The use of higher temperature (+ 35 ° C) provides for a reduction in the soaking time. Further, nuts are germinated in containers with a substrate, at room temperature up to + 28 ° С. Nuts germinate after 8 days. When the roots reach a length of 0.9 cm, the seeds should be transferred to a cool place with a temperature of + 3 ° C and kept there until planting in the soil.
In spring, they try to carry out the sowing, the sooner the better. In the nursery sow seeds to a depth of 7-8 cm, and at a constant place of growth - by 10 cm. Seeds are placed with the top up. The distance between the seeds in one row is 6.5–8.5 cm. The seeds are not covered or watered. When shoots appear, they weed and loosen the soil between the seedlings, make sure that the soil does not dry out. In the first 12 months, they grow to a height of 0.2 m, their diameter increases by 0.005 m.
The subtleties of care
Pruning of branches of a wide-round crown can be carried out in late autumn, but it should be noted that it will not work to form. At the end of summer, top dressing is added to the tree trunk: double superphosphate 20 g of the active substance, diluted in a bucket of water. Among the diseases, black spotting is known, in order to eliminate it, young plants are sprayed with a Bordeaux mixture until the buds open. The kidneys should be treated with an anti-fungal agent - Vectra. Black spotting of a nut. At the first signs, they reduce watering, loosen the soil for the purpose of drying out. From bites of nut-growers and ticks, galls (outgrowths) appear on the shoots and leaves of the nut, in which the females lay their eggs. In late spring, adult insects emerge from the Gauls. To destroy gall mites, gardeners spray trees with a decoction of onion husks, infusion of garlic or its arrows, a solution of laundry soap. This procedure should be carried out only in the late evening, when bees and bumblebees no longer collect nectar in the garden.
Important! Experienced gardeners pre-treat the seeds with kerosene before sowing so that they are not eaten by rodents.
The use of infusions is a preventative measure. A large number of pests requires the use of biological preparations, among which are: “Akarin”, “Bicol”, “Bitoxibacillin”, “Fitoverm”, “Summer resident”. The number of sprayings should be at least five to six times. In autumn, the trunk of young seedlings should be insulated, wrapping it with burlap. Adult fruit trees are no longer insulated for the winter.
Harvesting and storage
Harvested in September with the help of special equipment fixed at the base of the trunk, which shakes the plant with tremors. An umbrella-like awning is pulled under the tree. Processing involves peeling. This process can be done manually or put the fruit in water, from the impact of which the green shell lags behind.The fruits are not separated from the shell and stored in a metal container or in cotton bags. The storage location should be cool and protected from direct sunlight. An acceptable storage period is 6 months.
The gray nut in the photo and in real life has an interesting and beautiful look. The gray nut not only adorns the landscape of the squares, but also saturates the area with oxygen, absorbing carbon dioxide. Traditional medicine recipes include both fruits and leaves, as well as tree bark for the preparation of medicines.