Description of the fungus bitter, features of use, the benefits and harms of mushrooms
In nature, there is a huge number of mushrooms, in particular bitter. This is an unusual variety, which is characterized by a sharp aroma and unpresentable appearance. It belongs to the conditionally edible species, so you need to use it with extreme caution.
Bitter is characterized by a constant appearance. In nature, there are a huge number of milky poisonous mushrooms with which the species in question can be confused. To prevent this, it is always necessary to study in detail the description of all species. They may vary in color of the cap, density of the pulp and the height of the legs.
Did you know? The largest mushroom was discovered in 1985 in America. Its weight was 140 kg, and its width was 2 m.
What does it look like
If you consider all the photos of bitter, then the size of the cap is different. It varies from 5 to 12 cm. At the initial stage of development, the cap takes the form of a bell. After some time, it becomes flatter or funnel-shaped. The most important sign of bitterness is the presence of a small tuber in the center of the cap. The edges are characterized by a fine structure and they are turned inward. The peel has a smooth surface. The hue is solid, red-brown. On the surface you can see a slight pubescence. After the rain passes, the mushroom acquires a glossy and sticky structure.
The hat and leg of the bitter have a good density. In some periods of time, they can break (if heavy rains pass).
The hue of the pulp depends on the age of the mushrooms:
- in young - white, with small brown impurities;
- in old - brown-chestnut shade.
If you make a small incision, then the colorless juice, resembling a little milk, will start to stand out from the pulp. Depending on the effect of oxygen (on its amount), the hue of the liquid released may change. If you try this juice with a fresh mushroom, then it can burn your lips and mouth a little. The pulp has a specific pungent odor, which for many seems unpleasant.
Did you know? Scientists have proven that mushrooms have been growing on the planet for over 400 million years. That is, they grew long before the dinosaurs.
The leg has a cylindrical shape. Its maximum height reaches 7-8 cm. At the base there is a felt wrap of the mycelium. If you look closely at the photographs, young mushrooms have a white shade of the leg, and old ones have pink or red.
Where is growing
If a mushroom picker goes for bitters, he always knows the places where this variety grows. Most often, these mushrooms are found in coniferous and deciduous forests. To collect them, go to the lawns where pine and birch trees grow.. In these places, acidic soil prevails, on which bitter plants prefer to grow.
These mushrooms are found mainly in groups. But you can meet single individuals. They begin to bear fruit in mid-July. This period lasts until the onset of frost, that is, until mid-autumn.
Edible or not
It is customary to classify bitter as relatively edible mushrooms.. This means that you can eat fruits only after you carefully prepare them. First, you must carefully wash the collected mushrooms, and then boil in water with a small amount of salt. In Western countries, bitter is not consumed. It is believed that it is able to absorb radioactive substances contained in soil and air..
Important! In order not to harm your health, harvest fruits only in ecologically clean regions.
Varieties and doubles
Gorchak has several doubles.They can be either edible or unsuitable for consumption. You can confuse this species with several varieties of mushrooms:
- Camphor Lactarius treats conditionally edible.
- Swamp breast is edible.
- Meat Red Lactarius conditionally edible.
- Hepatic not suitable for use, because it contains a lot of toxins.
If you are a lover of mushrooms, then you can always grow bitterness at home. You can place it in the garden, on the balcony or in the yard.
Cultivation is carried out by several methods:
- Buy a ready-made mycelium. It needs to be poured into a substrate prepared in advance. To prepare it, mix wood bark, ordinary soil and sawdust. Sprinkle the substrate next to the tree where mushrooms will be grown. Make small holes and sprinkle the mycelium. Pour thoroughly with water. The first crop can be harvested as early as next year.
- Pick mushrooms. When they begin to secrete mycelium, carry out all the procedures indicated in the first method.
Bitter prefers to grow on well-moistened soil. Therefore, it must be watered carefully, and in hot summers cover the plantations with a cloth so that burns do not form
The benefits of eating bitters are very pronounced.
- The healing properties are as follows:
- helps to boost the immune system, t. contains ascorbic acid;
- the use of juice for external purposes helps prevent the development of dermatological diseases (age spots, inflammation, eczema, etc.);
- The selenium contained in the composition is a powerful antioxidant. It contributes to the delayed aging of cells and skin;
- lowers blood sugar, thereby reducing the symptoms of diabetes.
The collected mushrooms must be soaked in clean water for 3 days. Change the water several times daily to remove all toxins and harmful substances. After this, pour the fruits into a container and put on fire. You need to cook them for 40-60 minutes. If scale will appear, then you need to collect it with a spoon and throw it away. When the bitter is boiled, it is necessary to rinse it again. After that, you can use the fruits for preservation or salting.
Important! Prefer the hot salting method and add a large number of different seasonings.
On the Internet you can find a huge number of different recipes using bittersweet. That's just her taste in this case will be specific, so this is only at the request of the person. The most common way to make fruit is salting.
Video: Mushroom pickle bitter
In the composition of the fungus under consideration there is a substance that has characteristics similar to an antiseptic. Therefore, it is used to protect against bacterial diseases. Quite often, bitters are used to treat Staphylococcus aureus.
Young mushrooms are used to treat wounds and cuts.. They can also be used to normalize blood pressure and weight.
It is forbidden to give bitter fruit to children whose age is less than 6 years. This is due to the fact that fungi accumulate in themselves negative substances from the soil and air. If the body of an adult is able to independently get rid of toxins and toxins, then children often develop intoxication.
- Contraindications include the presence of the following diseases:
- Ulcer and gastritis.
- Diseases of the liver (cirrhosis, hepatitis, etc.).
You can not eat the fruits of women, we are in position and during lactation. Also, if you suffer from cardiovascular diseases, then eating salted mushrooms can harm your body. This is due to the fact that salt provokes narrowing of blood vessels.
So, now you know exactly how the bitter fruit looks and with what mushrooms it can be confused.This variety is able to bring both benefit and harm to the body. Therefore, first go through a full examination with a doctor, and only after consultation with him, enter into the diet dishes of bitter.