Dubovik: types, taste, restrictions on use
Dubovk mushroom belongs to the Boletov family. This is a fairly common variety that combines several species. Is it possible to eat them and how to distinguish them from other representatives of the mushroom kingdom, read below.
Characteristic features of oak mushrooms:
|Hat shape and size||Average diameter 10-15 cm, less than 20 cm; thickness 5-7 cm; hemispherical in young specimens, becomes cushioned with age; velvety|
|The color of the outside of the hat||tan to tan|
|Leg||height - 5–12 cm; diameter - 4–6 cm; massive, thickens toward the bottom; yellowish on top, brown on top; brown on the surface of some species|
|Pulp||it is yellow on the hat on the cut, when it comes into contact with air, it immediately turns intense blue-green, then slowly blackens; at the base of the leg on the cut is red; the aroma is barely expressed|
In total, 3 species of fungi under consideration stand out:
- Orchid - the cap is large, massive, painted yellowish-brown or gray-brown, fleshy. The flesh is yellowish, densely structural, at the cut it begins to immediately change color to blue-green. Leg up to 12 cm high, covered with a net, which is the hallmark of this particular species. In the upper part it is yellowish, dark below. The tubular hymenophore with small pores, is ocher in color, becomes dirty olive with age.
- Speckled dupe - a hat in structure, as in the previous instance, but differs in a darker color scheme. It can be chestnut-brown, red-brown, black-brown, with bright edges. The tubular hymenophore is yellow-olive in color and turns red-orange in color with age. The leg is massive, 5–10 cm tall, yellow-red. Covered with small scales of dark red color. The pulp has the same characteristics as that of the common oak.
- Dubele Kele - the cap is uniformly convex, 5–15 cm in diameter, brown in color, as in butter. In dry weather, its surface is smooth, covered with mucus after rain and high humidity. The leg is strong, thick at the base. Fragments of a white mycelium are clearly visible in the lower part. The pulp is similar in characteristics to the previous types, but differs in a sour taste. The hymenophore is tubular, red-yellow.
Where they meet and when they grow
Duboviks are widespread in the temperate climate zone, mainly in mixed forests with good lighting and a high percentage of humidity. The name of the mushrooms speaks for itself - most often they can be found just under the oaks. Also, mushrooms of this type grow under lindens, birches, less often in open glades. The species prefers calcareous soil.
This species practically does not grow alone. Usually settles in large groups, which greatly facilitates the collection. Fruiting begins around mid-July and ends in mid-September. The peak of the mass appearance of oak trees falls in mid-August.
A dangerous double of Duboviks is a satanic mushroom - its use in food even after heat treatment can be fatal. Their main difference is the flesh - in a poisonous double it immediately turns red on a cut, and in true oak trees it turns blue.
When and how to collect
You can start collecting from the very beginning of the appearance of mushrooms in the forest (mid-July). It is best to take small and medium-sized specimens. It’s not worth collecting old big oak trees, because they are tasteless.
Important! You should not pick mushrooms in the immediate vicinity of the tracks and in the city. The fact is that they absorb exhaust gases like a sponge, and even edible specimens from this become poisonous.
It is better to pick mushrooms with gloves so as not to get your hands dirty. They need to be cut with a knife, and not turned upside down. The tool should be sharpened well, with a blade about 10 cm long. The cut is done at the base of the leg, slightly obliquely. After picking mushrooms in a specific place, it is better to stick out the sticking sections slightly with soil. At this point, new mushrooms will then grow.
Video: How to distinguish an oak tree from a satanic mushroom
Edibility and taste
All of the above species of oak trees are edible. But in raw form they are not used. It is first necessary to carry out cleaning and heat treatment. First, mushrooms are freed from dirt. Then peel off the hat. It can be easily detached if you pry it on one side with a knife and pull. You just need to scrape the leg with a knife, removing the top layer of the skin.
Then the fruits are washed well under running water. Stack in a pan, fill with water, add a whole onion. Boil for 30 minutes. After this, the broth is drained and the manipulation is repeated. Boiled mushrooms are thrown into a colander. Wait until they drain, grind at your discretion. Then fry in butter with onions and season with sour cream.
The product in question can be added to soups, make sauces, marinades based on it. Ready oak has a pleasant taste, slightly reminiscent of tender meat. In cooking, dried oak trees are also widely used as seasoning.
Did you know?The fungus tinder fungus growing on tree trunks can live for about 80 years.
If mushrooms are a common food for humans, then you can eat about 200 g at a time. If such food is rarely consumed, then the dosage should not exceed 100 g. When overeating, stool disorders, nausea, vomiting, and weakness in the body can be observed.
- Mushrooms are absolutely contraindicated:
- children under 10 years old;
- pregnant and lactating mothers;
- people suffering from dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract of various etiologies;
- those who have a history of individual intolerance to fungi and mold.
Value in medicine
Fresh mushrooms of the species in question contain boletol. This is a natural antibiotic that helps fight various pathogens.
The cap contains substances that block the development of cancer cells. In addition, the product is rich in amino acids. These compounds beneficially affect the condition of the skin, enhance regenerative functions at the cellular level, and also take an active part in maintaining immunity.
Did you know? The fastest mushroom in terms of development is fun. Although he lives only 2 days, but at the same time grows at a speed of 5 mm / h.
If you want to always have your own clearing with mushrooms on hand, and you have your own plot of land at your disposal, then the oak tree can be grown at home. For this, it is necessary to allocate a territory measuring 2.5 × 3 m². The plot for growing mushrooms must be in the shade and be sufficiently moist. Planting material is taken in the forest. For this purpose, you can use old large specimens of oak trees. They are turned upside down during collection. You just need to grind the whole mushroom into crumbs.
When a suitable place is found, a layer of earth 30 cm high is removed over its entire area. Then, nutrient layers for mycelium are formed and the mycelium is sown.
Do it like this:
- Stack 10 cm of a mixture of dust, grass, sawdust, foliage.
- Place 10 cm of soil from under deciduous trees or replace it with rotted manure.
- Evenly sprinkle the area with planting material.
- The entire manipulation of the first point is repeated, only the layer is made 3 cm high.
- Stack 5 cm of garden soil.
Before the appearance of the first mushrooms, the area is irrigated daily using a drip irrigation system. If it rains, then you should not water. With the advent of the first specimens, hydration is stopped and carried out only on very hot days. The first crop can be harvested after 1.5 months. Then the mushrooms will appear every 1.5 weeks. The mycelium itself can bear fruit up to 5 years. Then you will need to carry out the replacement as described above.
Dubovik is an edible specimen quite popular among mushroom pickers. It can be fried, added to various dishes. And if you use the tips given above, it is quite realistic to organize your own mushroom meadow on your site.