What are the varieties of hazelnuts
Cultivated hazelnuts - hazelnuts have special qualities. They are not only nutritious, but also help to enrich the human body with useful trace elements and amino acids. The increased demand for hazelnuts in cooking, medicine and cosmetology is prompting garden owners to plant more and more often with new, large-yield bushes. Therefore, it is necessary to know the name of the cultivated hazel variety that is popular and suitable for a specific region of the country.
For central Russia
Modern selection has allowed to create about 100 different kinds of hazelnuts. Since the climate of central Russia is characterized by severe frosts in winter, not all varieties of hazelnuts are suitable for cultivation in this region.
Recommended for growing plants that have been selected specifically for the mentioned region are included in the state register:
- Moscow early;
Important! Hazelnuts - a plant in which there are male and female flowers. Pollination is carried out by means of wind and insects. And for high yields of fruits, it is recommended to plant several different varieties nearby.
Early Moscow allows you to get about 3 kg of hazelnuts from one bush. The plant tolerates frosts and gives an early harvest. A feature of the nut is its mass - 1.8 g and an oblong-rounded shape.
Cultivated, frost-resistant hazel of the Masterpiece variety was bred in Ukraine. In some households it is used as a standard plant. The crown of the bush is growing rapidly. Propagated by the vegetative method.
Ripe nuts are collected in clusters of 2-8 pieces, each - a maximum of 3 g. The kernels are perfectly stored. They contain up to 64% of natural oils.
The remaining varieties from the list are very popular among gardeners in the middle zone of the Russian Federation. And the description of plants should be discussed in more detail.
This is a hybrid variety whose kernels are dessert. It tolerates low temperatures. The shrub gives a stable annual crop, has an attractive appearance, which allows the use of hazelnuts for decorative purposes.
The foliage is colored in a characteristic purple hue. The nuts themselves have an elongated shape, and during the ripening period they can change color from pink to dark crimson. There are at least 8 fruits in clusters. The average weight of each is 8 g.
The variety was obtained in 1961 as a result of crossing common hazel from forestry in the Tambov Region and hybrid hazelnut No. 236, taken from the fund of A. S. Yablokov. Work on the creation of engaged R.F. Kudasheva.
The variety Catherine during the pollination period needs the immediate presence of plants resistant to cold, for example, Tambov Late or Pervenets. A significant drawback is the reproduction of hazel - during the growing season, the root system slowly develops.
The Catalan hazelnut variety was bred in Poland, and was later introduced into Russia. It belongs to the mid-early group (by maturity). The described hazelnuts bring an excellent harvest, which is harvested in late September. Nuts have valuable properties and a high content of useful trace elements and substances.
The main feature of this variety is that ripe nuts, when cracked, easily fall out of the shell.
Hybrid variety with high cold resistance. The shrub is characterized by stable crops of excellent quality. Leaves and ripening nuts are dark cherry in color.This feature allows you to use hazelnuts in landscape design to decorate home areas, squares, parks.
Important! In medicine, not only the fruits of hazelnuts are directly used as raw materials, but also its roots, bark and leaves.
Growing this bush, on average, in a favorable season, allows you to get up to 4 kg of nuts from the plant. The fruit has almost the highest content of essential oils, the rate of which is 71%. Sugar variety obtained by crossing F-86 and Trapezund.
The certificate was obtained at the Hazelnut NGO “Hazelnut” of the All-Russian Research Institute of Forestry and Forestry Mechanization. In 1995, it was included in the general register for the northern regions and the central part of the Russian Federation.
The plant safely survives cold winters with temperatures up to -40 ° C.
Frost resistant varieties
In order to successfully grow hazelnuts in the northern regions of the country, several varieties have been developed that can tolerate harsh, cold winters. Such plants successfully withstand a temperature drop of -40 ° C and are referred to under the common name "North" with the assigned serial number, for example, Northern 9 or Northern 42.
In addition to the above varietal material, we dwell on the most popular varieties of hazelnuts with the above properties.
This is an interspecific hybrid with bright green foliage. Bred in 1957 by R. Kudasheva at RNIILM. For crossing, varieties of the Far Eastern variegated hazel and Nottingham were selected. Tested since 1975. Officially in the register since 1995.
It blooms with “catkins”, which during pollination emit a large amount of pollen. The bark of the plant has a characteristic grayish tint. The shrub is medium-sized and sprawling. The maximum recorded height is 3.5 m. The fruit wrapper is 1.5 times longer than the nut itself and has a light green color.
Fruits are arranged in bunches, 2-5 pieces each.
Their mass, on average, is equal to 2.5 g of each instance. The shape is oval. The shell has a smooth surface, golden yellow hue. Walnut contains approximately 65% vegetable fats. From the bush you can get up to 6 kg of the crop.
Harvesting nuts begins in the second decade of September. It is considered an excellent pollinator for other types of cultivated hazel. The only significant drawback of the Firstborn is considered the abundant development and growth of the root system during the growing season.
Did you know? In Ancient Babylon, hazelnuts were allowed only to royal persons. It was believed that nuts that have a beneficial effect on mental abilities were not intended for the poor.
It is listed in the state register with assigned number 575. It refers to species with green leaves. Received as a result of selection in 1956 by a famous specialist R. Kudasheva. In 1969 he was accepted for the All-Russian test. It withstands cooling to -42 ° C.
The height of hazelnuts reaches 3.5 m, and the diameter of the main trunk is 3 cm. In one bush there can be up to 200 shoots, the bark of which is painted in gray. The plant has a sprawling crown shape and large foliage. In one fruit, 3 to 32 nuts are formed.
Fruits are elongated. Their mass is 2.5 g each. Size is average. Nuts are “clad” in a thin-walled shell, the thickness of which is not more than 1 mm. The upper part of the fetus is slightly pubescent.
The kernel has a characteristic sweetish and pronounced flavor. The fat content is in the region of 65%. Fruits in the second half of September, so the variety is considered late. About 5 kg of nuts are collected from one bush. "Late Tambov" is considered an excellent pollinator. It has been in the state register since 1994. The variety has no obvious flaws.
For Moscow region
Moscow Region is a vast territory with a peculiar climate. Only some varieties of hazelnuts can grow and successfully bear fruit in this region of the country. The most popular ones are described below.
Refers to the type of green leaf hazel. R. worked on the creation of the variety.Kudasheva (1956), and was accepted for testing in 1969. It has been on the state register since 1994. In the winter period 1978–1979 in the Moscow region withstood prolonged exposure to cold with a temperature index of -42 ° C.
The height of hazelnuts reaches 4 m. The diameter of its main trunk is 3.5 cm. It has a large leaf, and the crown is formed in the form of a narrow pyramid. Ripe walnut has an oblong shape with an attractive yellow-golden color.
The shell is not thick, not more than 0.8 mm. The kernel weighs about 2 g. The variety is equivalent to dessert. Assessment of taste is 4.5 points out of 5 possible.
The core contains 71% fat. The culture is considered one of the best in terms of oil content. The kernel is stored for up to 4 years at room temperature, without losing its primary taste. The flowering period of male and female inflorescences occurs simultaneously, which allows you to get excellent and stable harvest.
Often used in plantings as the main pollinator for other varieties of hazelnuts and hazel. In Moscow and Tambov regions fruiting occurs at the end of summer. In the plus, there are from 2 to 10 nuts. An adult tree produces about 4 kg of fruit per season.
Did you know? Hazelnut tree has been growing for over 100 years. And the oil extracted from nuts never dries.
A hazelnut with leaves of a reddish hue was selected by R. Kudasheva in 1957. The crossing of Nottingham and wild hazel varieties numbered 154, 155, 162, 167 allowed this wonderful bush to be bred. It was taken for testing in 1982. It has been in the register since 1994. The average mass of ripe walnut is 3.5 g.
The color of leaves and pluses at the time of fruit ovary acquire a raspberry hue. In fertility, there are from 7 to 15 nuts. The bush is powerful and branched. Its height reaches an impressive 4.5 m. It tolerates excellent low temperatures.
At the beginning of flowering, male flowers appear on the tree. Their ratio to women is 9:10. therefore Moscow ruby is considered the best pollinator among red-leaf varieties. One bush makes it possible to collect up to 5 kg of crop. The kernel of the described plant belongs to dessert varieties, with a bright, delicate taste. Fat content is 63%. The fruits ripen in mid-October. No flaws were found.
For the Krasnodar Territory
This territory of the Russian Federation is located in the south of the country. However, in the Krasnodar Territory only specially selected varieties of hazelnuts can grow and bear fruit well.
The variety, whose name is "Circassian", is local, Adyghe. Information on its withdrawal is not available. Ripening is early. Up to 6 kg of nuts can be obtained from one bush per year. The main advantage of hazelnuts is its resistance to pests and diseases. It can tolerate minor frosts and droughts, which are characteristic of this region of the country.
The crown of the bush is branched, with strong and strong branches. The mass of one nut reaches a value of 1.6 g. It differs in a wide oval shape. The cocks are longer than the fetus itself, whole. The shell has weakly expressed stripes, brown color and insignificant thickness.
The kernel contains approximately 70% fat. It belongs to dessert types to taste. Tests officially began in 1950. In the state register, the acceptance mark is marked in 1995. Significant deficiencies in the bush were not identified. No special care is required.
This variety appeared as a result of independent crossbreeding of several varieties of forest hazel. The result of such pollination was recorded by specialists of the Kuban Agrarian University. Later hazelnuts were noted as the discovery of N. A. Tkhagushev. The resulting nut ripens early. The first fruits can be harvested at the end of August.
The main advantages are the resistance of the plant to frost and drought. Pests and diseases practically do not damage the bush.
The average yield reaches 6 kg per bush.Crohn is characterized by medium density. Leaves - yellow-olive tint. On the shoots there is fluff.
The fruit has an average weight of 2.1 g. Usually in one "coupling" there are 3-4 nuts, less often - 5-8 pieces. The core contains approximately 65.5% of fats. During the tasting, a total score of 3.9 was set.
Not a dessert variety. In the process of the All-Russian test, the Adyghe hazelnut since 1967. It is entered in the register in 1973. Significant disadvantages in this variety are not observed. All of the above varieties are best purchased in the form of young seedlings, which will visually determine the structure of the root system.
If it is branched, then, most likely, the seller is trying to realize the so-called seedling of a hazelnut (wild hazel). It is worth remembering that several varieties are suitable for each region of the country. A good crop and a healthy plantation cannot be obtained if you plant a thermophilic bush in the cold regions of the Russian Federation.