Black boot (Russula adusta): mushroom description, doubles, harvest season
Russula adusta, or black boot, belongs to the family Russula. This mushroom is widely distributed in Russia and is actively used in cooking. In order not to confuse it with other representatives of the kingdom of mushrooms, it is necessary to study the biological characteristics in more detail.
Biological description of black loading:
|Pulp||on the cut blushes, then turns gray.|
|Worm Affection Rate||tall.|
|Taste / smell||sweet-sharp / pronounced musty, gives away mold.|
Where is it growing?
Russula black is found everywhere. It can be found in mixed, coniferous and deciduous forests. Mushrooms grow in small groups and singly. Very rarely you can find large plantations dotted with these mushrooms. The species prefers acidic soils and good lighting. Most often settles in open glades and along paths.
Important!Sometimes black podgruzki appear on the surface of the soil in its old form, and until that moment lead a semi-underground lifestyle.
Collect the considered mushrooms from July to October. Only young specimens should be taken. For the most part, old russula is struck by worms, and besides, they have an unpleasant musty smell of mold and a bitter taste. Collected with a sharpened knife. The fruits are carefully cut under the root, trying not to damage the mycelium.
The considered type of fungi qualifies as conditionally edible. This means that it can be eaten as food, but first you need to soak it, then boil it and only then use it as intended. Use a black preload for stewing, frying and pickling. The product does not differ in high palatability, therefore it is better to cook it together with other mushrooms.
Similar species of the fungus in question are russula.
Important! Green and greenish Russula are similar in appearance to pale grebes. The main distinguishing feature between edible mushrooms and a poisonous analogue is the presence of the latter on the leg of the ring and thickening at the base.
They differ among themselves in the color of the hat:
All of the above representatives are edible. Types of russula, which differ in caustic burning taste, are inedible. They are mildly toxic or toxic. This means that when eaten, mushrooms can cause mild digestive upsets.
Such specimens also differ in the color of the hat:
- birch - pink, red, purple and gray shades;
- red - bright red;
- pink - a hat of a similar color;
- Kele - red tones prevail in the color (purple, burgundy, red);
- brittle - on the edge of the hat is light pink, to the center brown or purple with an olive tint;
- Meira and pungent - reddish red.
Doubles are called mushrooms, similar in appearance. The considered specimens have no toxic analogues.
Both representatives are quite edible.
The representative belongs to the family Russula. His cap reaches a diameter of 5-15 cm, convex in young specimens, and eventually becomes concave. Initially painted a dirty white color.Later it acquires a gray or brown tint. The surface is smooth with a little mucus.
Lamenophore. Unlike black preload, double plates are rarely located. Initially, they are white, then acquire a pinkish or grayish tint. The leg is strong, cylindrical, up to 10 cm high. The pulp is white, thick, and easily breaks.
Did you know? In 1985, champignon was found in America, the weight of which was 140 kg, and the leg in girth reached 2 m.
The range of distribution of the fungus is the same as that of the black д The main difference between the doubles is the flesh. In a blackening load, it immediately becomes dark on the cut, and does not blush, as in the specimen under consideration.
Variety refers to lamellar species. It is little known, although its appearance is quite noticeable. The hat is characterized by a bright color, in which gray-green tones prevail in young specimens, and olive with purple or black-violet in old ones. However, sometimes the color is the same as the black one. The first difference is that the corrugated russula peel can be removed from the cap by about a third without much effort, which is absolutely impossible to do with a black boot.
Did you know? The record holder for the growth rate among fungi is fun. Every 2 minutes it increases by 1 cm.
Plates in the hymenophore are often located. They can be fixed tightly or loosely. The leg is cylindrical, white, dense, 4 to 10 cm high. The pulp is denser in the leg than in the hat. Black has a load, on the contrary, the flesh is friable in the lower part of the mushroom. On the cut, the flesh of the russula wavy first becomes pinkish, then turns red, turns gray and turns black. Young mushrooms have a weak aroma and a bitter taste. Old mushrooms have a bright fruity smell and a sweetish aftertaste.It is also a distinguishing feature between the considered analogues - in black, the black pulp smells of mold and has a sweetish-sharp taste. Black underload refers to a fairly common edible group of mushrooms. Its fruiting lasts from July to October. Only young specimens that have gone through several degrees of processing (cleaning, soaking, cooking) are consumed.