Conditions for growing mushrooms at home
Mushroom cultivation quite often becomes an interesting hobby. Many want to please themselves and their loved ones with fragrant and tasty mushrooms grown at home. But few people know that this occupation can become quite a profitable business, since it does not require huge expenses or extensive knowledge. This article will talk about what is needed to grow mushrooms in your own home.
General conditions for mushroom growth
If you have absolutely no experience in this matter, then first you need to consider the conditions for the cultivation of mushrooms. You can grow in your own cellar or basement, since mushrooms do not require heat. If there is no such room, then it is best to carry out the procedure in a barn or greenhouse. One of the conditions is the presence of concrete walls and floors, as well as ventilation. To avoid pests, cover all exits with a mosquito net. It is also necessary to carry out disinfection by treating the walls and floor with an extract.
In general, in order to start growing mushrooms in the cellar, it is necessary to achieve the following conditions:
- Temperature is from + 8 ° С to + 20 ° С.
- Humidity 80%.
- Lack of mold and pests.
Did you know? Based on the DNA of fungi, they are male and female.
Choosing the type of mushroom to grow
For beginners, oyster mushrooms are the best option for growing, champignons are also suitable for small production. Most experienced mushroom growers prefer to breed exotic mushrooms, which you definitely can’t find in stores. Porcini mushrooms, chanterelles, honey mushrooms and butterflies are well suited for mushroom cultivation in summer cottages. Growing mushrooms at home is a profitable business, because such products are in demand among the population.
Preparing the landing site
It was already mentioned above how to prepare a room for growing mushrooms at home, and then it should be considered what is necessary for their cultivation in a suburban area.
To start growing, for example, champignons, you need to fertilize the earth. Horse manure can be an excellent option: it must be distributed in special compartments - they are called champignon. The main thing is to provide the mushrooms with humidity of about 80% and a temperature of +12 ... + 18 ° С. You can also use cereal fertilizers and additional bait, such as potassium salts, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate.
Did you know? If you take a sample of air in any room, you can detect spores of mushrooms, since even ordinary champignon throws out about 30 million spores.
Rules for growing mushrooms
To grow mushrooms at home requires mycelium, this is, in fact, the body of the fungus - thin threads that contribute to the reproduction of organisms. For breeding, you can take mycelium in grains: it is easy to sow and it is unpretentious in care.
During the acquisition of mycelium, you need to look at its condition. Grains should be yellow and not have black spots.. There should also be a pronounced smell of mushrooms.
The next step is the preparation of the substrate - the soil in which organisms will develop. It should be loose and filled with nutrients. A specific substrate may be needed for each variety, but there are some options that suit all species.
You can make compost using the following ingredients:
- horse manure - 800 kg;
- straw - 50 kg;
- gypsum - 18 kg;
- urea - 3 kg;
- superphosphate - 8 kg;
- ammonium nitrate - 8 kg.
Preparation of substrate:
- Straw must be soaked for 1 day in hot water.
- After you need to lay out the stack, mixing with manure. Each subsequent layer should be moistened with water.
- After 3 days, mix everything, add urea and superphosphate.
- After another 3 days, you again need to stir and add the remaining useful components, including gypsum.
- When the substrate is ready, it will acquire a light brown color, the smell of ammonia will also disappear.
- The finished mixture is transferred to containers for growing and sent to the basement.
- Further in the capacity, the mycelium is planted 5 cm in depth. A distance of 20 cm must be maintained between the recesses.
- Next, you need to fill the mushroom with earth. If you plant spores, they can be sown on the ground, covered with a cloth and moistened with water all the time.
- The mycelium grows within 5 days.
- After 12 days, 1 part of lime, 4 parts of soil and 5 parts of peat are poured onto the surface.
- Within 10 days, the soil is moistened.
- After the expiration of the temperature is reduced to 15 ° C.
Important! If you work with spores, it is necessary to protect the respiratory tract with a special mask, as they can cause an allergic reaction and a strong cough.
Although mushrooms are unpretentious in care, it is necessary to observe some conditions during their growth:
- maintaining moisture at a level of not less than 80%;
- fresh air (using a hood or, if the growing volume is small, you can ventilate manually);
- soil moisture;
- the use of minerals and fertilizers.
You can harvest after 3 months. It is possible to collect medium-sized mushrooms, in which the cap is easily detached from the stem.
In order not to harm the mycelium, it is best to cut the fruit with a knife. However, for example, champignons are best twisted. After this, the hole needs to be sprinkled with a substrate, and it will bear fruit again.
Important! If you notice dark spots on the mushrooms, then it is forbidden to use them, since they can cause serious harm to the body.
Champignons fruit from 8 to 14 weeksThanks to this, you can harvest 7 times. From about 1 square. meters collect up to 50 kg of mushrooms. After the mycelium ceased to bear fruit, the mycelium is removed, and the substrate is thrown away - it can no longer be used, since it has no useful substances left.
Summing up, we can conclude that the cultivation of mushrooms at home is not a simple matter that requires a responsible approach. But even if you are a beginner, there is no need to be afraid to try, because if you follow all the conditions, and most importantly, approach the lesson with love, you can achieve pretty good results. And even your first experience can bring you a rich harvest.