Oyster mushrooms and their counterparts in the forest, are there any poisonous oyster mushrooms, how to identify real
Oyster mushrooms belong to the family of oyster mushrooms. They have many species, most of which are edible. In Russia, these mushrooms are common. There are a huge number of delicious dishes from this product. The article will focus on oyster mushrooms and their false counterparts.
Most often in cooking use oyster mushrooms ordinary. This type of mushroom has a fairly large fruiting body. The size of the hat varies from 4 to 12 cm. The shape is round. The surface is smooth and glossy. The age of the fruiting body can be determined by the color of the hat: in young mushrooms, it is gray, in mature ones with a purple hue, and in old ones, the color changes to white or yellow.
The leg of oyster mushrooms is short (2–7 cm) and thin (up to 2.5 cm). It is located on the edge of the hat. Its color does not differ from the top of the mushroom. The pulp has a very pleasant smell. She is thin and dense. White colour. The plates are light yellow. They are stuck and go down the leg.
Important! There are times when the leg is missing.
When and where do oyster mushrooms grow
Oyster mushrooms settle in groups on deciduous trees: birches, oaks, aspen, etc. They can also be seen on fallen branches, trunks and stumps. Less common on conifers. Often these mushrooms are grown at home in a special substrate, which consists of plant waste.
Fruits intensively from May to September, but oyster mushrooms in the wild can be harvested until November.In winter, the growth of fungi stops, after which their condition largely depends on the time of onset of frost and the stage of development at this point. If the fruiting bodies managed to ripen before the onset of low temperatures, then in winter they can continue to hang on the place where they grew.
Did you know? Oyster mushrooms are predators that are able to feed and digest different worms. Thanks to this, finding wormy mushrooms is almost impossible.
In this state, the mushrooms are semi-solid and can be cut. If the rains were preceded by frost, then oyster mushrooms cannot be cut from the tree, as they will be very hard. To get a group of fruiting bodies, they must be knocked down.
The most common oyster mushrooms
The most common types of oyster mushrooms include:
- Pulmonary. The diameter of the hat reaches 15 cm. The color is light gray in the young fruiting body and yellowish in the old. Fan shape. The leg is short and matches the color of the hat. The mushrooms are fleshy and have a pleasant aroma. This species is edible and very tasty. They grow, as a rule, on deciduous trees in forests or in a park zone. Fruits from July to September.
- Royal. This is a delicious form of these mushrooms, so the name is. The cap is small - 4–13 cm. Young mushrooms are white with a red or gray tint, and old ones turn yellow. The leg is small - up to 4 cm. The plates are not densely arranged. The pulp is dense and fleshy. The taste is light with pleasant mushroom notes. Such oyster mushrooms grow in the steppe zone, which distinguishes them from all other species. Fruits in the first half of autumn.
- Autumn. The hat (length about 12 cm, width - 6 cm) resembles the shape of the ear. The color is gray, as the fungus grows darker. The pulp is white and aromatic. The records are also white. The leg is short, dense and slightly lowered. You can see such mushrooms on stumps and deciduous trees. They live, as a rule, in mixed forests. Bear fruit from August to December. Edible mushrooms.
- Horn-shaped. The mature hat of the fruiting body has a carob shape 4–13 cm in size. The color is white or yellow, but acquires a brown color as it ripens. The leg is very short, about 1 cm long.It can be milky or gray. The plates are light and sparse. The pulp is fleshy, aromatic and tight. They prefer to grow on aspens, birches, oaks, mountain ash or maples. Fruits from May to September.
- Oak. The hat has a convex semicircular or oval shape with wavy edges, up to 10 cm in size. In a mature mushroom, it becomes concave. The color is cream or yellow. The leg is short and cylindrical. The plates are densely arranged. Their color corresponds to the color of the hat. The pulp has a light sweetish aroma, but at the same time hard and dense. This type of oyster mushroom grows on deciduous trees in a temperate climate. Fruits in the second half of summer and early autumn.
Are there any poisonous oyster mushrooms, with which mushrooms you can confuse, how to distinguish
In Russia, there is no toxic analogue of oyster mushrooms. Dangerous mushrooms of this species can only be seen in Australia. But do not relax because of this.
Did you know? Mushrooms are old-timers on our planet. Scientists claim that they appeared earlier than dinosaurs (more than 400 million years ago).
In our country, false species are often found, such as:
- Orange oyster mushroom. The fruiting body of this species is very rigid, therefore it is not popular among fans of this food product. Orange mushrooms look very beautiful, they are often planted to decorate the garden. To confuse these oyster mushrooms with the usual does not work as, the main and noticeable difference is the color of the mushrooms.
- Wolfwood. Fruit bodies have great bitterness, therefore are inedible. Color is yellow-red. Legs often grow together. Ripe mushrooms have an unpleasant aroma similar to the smell of rotten cabbage.
- Green. The color of oyster mushrooms corresponds to the name of this species. The taste is bitter.
Taste and cooking applications
This product can be safely called dietary. It is included in the diet of almost all the most popular and effective diets. Oyster mushrooms are low-calorie (only 40 kcal), but very nutritious. The taste qualities of these mushrooms are able to complement any salad or dish. Oyster mushrooms are often preferred as an additional ingredient in cooking. It is also worth noting the good aroma of the fruiting body. It is stored not only fresh, but also cooked.
There are many options for using oyster mushrooms in cooking. They can be:
- to cook;
- to grill;
- pickle etc.
Before proceeding with the preparation of the product, it is necessary to pay attention to the color of oyster mushrooms. It must be homogeneous - this is a sign of quality. Fruit bodies must be free from rot and damage. Also in cooking, it is important to use young mushrooms. They have better taste than the old ones.
Benefit and possible harm
Oyster mushrooms are very useful. They contain substances (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, mineral salts and vitamins), which favorably affect our body. The amount of fat and carbohydrate in the product exceeds this indicator in vegetable crops, and the content of amino acids and proteins is almost the same.The pulp of mushrooms in the composition of vitamins (B, C, D and D) is similar to meat. But the greatest value of mushroom dishes is the high content of vitamin PP.
- Regular use of oyster mushrooms contributes to:
- lower cholesterol;
- suppressing the development of E. coli;
- the breakdown of glycogen and fats;
- the withdrawal of radioactive elements;
- increase the body's resistance to radiation;
- cancer prevention;
- cleansing the body of salts of heavy metals;
- normalization of the digestive tract.
This type of mushroom is one of the most harmless. If you collect fruiting bodies in ecologically safe places and cook them correctly, then they will not harm you.
Important! Oyster mushrooms contain a substance harmful to the human body — chitin, which is poorly absorbed. People with stomach problems are not recommended to consume this product frequently.
The mushrooms that inhabit the trees are wood destroyers. This is due to the fact that their mycelium is in the middle of the wood, which entails the destruction of its composition.
Oyster mushrooms have a very useful function on dead trees. It turns out that they cleanse the forest of dry trunks and branches, turning them into dust, which eventually forms fertile soil. These are natural orderlies, without whom the whole earth would be covered with the remnants of old wood. By clearing the forest, they provide an opportunity to grow young trees.
Oyster mushrooms have long gained popularity among fans to enjoy delicious mushrooms. If you cook them correctly, they become a real delicacy, and the beneficial properties of this product will replenish your body with the necessary vitamins and substances.