Porcini mushrooms: initial cleaning in the forest, proper treatment before cooking
White mushroom is valued all over the world, it is even ranked among the noble species of forest delicacies. To cook this product deliciously, you need to be able to properly process and clean it. This will be discussed in the article.
A mature specimen is distinguished by a large hat in the form of a plate with a convex top. It can reach a diameter of 30 cm. The surface of the cap can be wrinkled, with cracks. The skin is not separated from the pulp and has a dark yellow, red-brown or brown color. After rain, the skin glistens, and in dry weather it is dull.
The boletus leg is thick, has the shape of a cylinder or mace, and in girth it reaches 10 cm. It has a white surface with reddish blotches. The pulp of the mushroom is juicy, fibrous in the cut does not darken. In its raw form, it does not have a bright aroma, but when cooked, it smells strong and pleasant. The taste of pulp is rich, mushroom, with pronounced nutty notes.
Did you know? Biologists have determined that porcini mushrooms contain antibiotics that can be processed and effectively used to treat tuberculosis.
Where and at what time they grow
The distribution area of boletus is quite wide: it covers almost all continents, with the exception of Australia and Antarctica. This type of mushroom is harvested even in South Africa and cold Iceland.The porcini mushroom is unpretentious in choosing a partner for mycorrhiza: the list includes both deciduous trees (alder, oak, birch), and conifers (spruce, pine).
The mushroom loves to settle in moist mosses and lichens, dense thickets of grass, as well as on sandy, sandy loam and loamy lands.
The fruiting period is stretched from June to September inclusive. In the southern warm and humid climate, the harvest season begins in May and ends in October. The porcini mushroom grows both in large groups and singly.
How to collect and clean mushrooms in the forest
The correct collection of boletus begins with the choice of a place away from roads, industrial enterprises, farms where chemicals hazardous to health can be used. Mushrooms have a large mycelium, stretching for tens of meters, with good ability to absorb toxins. Therefore, it is necessary to go far into the forest from settlements.
Important! The porcini mushroom has several doubles, when collecting, you need to pay attention to the cut of the pulp. A good edible fruit does not darken.
It is important to assemble the product correctly without harming nature:
- It is impossible to tear out boletus from the soil: this destroys the mycelium and prevents its further growth. The fruit is cut almost at the level of the soil. If the knife is missing or broken, you can gently scroll the fruit around its axis.
- The optimal collection time is morning, as well as the time immediately after rains (boletus love moisture).
- A high-quality copy should not be wormy, because in this case it contains the waste products of parasites, which is bad for health.
- Too large mushrooms should not be taken: they are harsh and can contain a large amount of harmful substances.
According to one version, this mushroom is called white, because it does not need to be thoroughly cleaned.
The raw materials collected according to all the rules of the mushroom picker are inspected and processed first in the forest: they adhere to adhering particles of soil, vegetation and dirt. The rest of the preparation preparations are done at home.
Depending on which dish will be prepared from the mushroom product, it is prepared accordingly. This is a fairly simple process, but it requires accuracy and focus.
If you plan to boil mushroom soup, fry or stew them, you need to not only remove large debris, but carefully clean the mushrooms with a knife. On different parts of the fruiting body there may be wilted areas, traces of a slug or worm. They need to be cut and scraped carefully.
After processing, the cleaned product must be washed. It is also advisable to soak the mushrooms, as small particles of dust and insects accumulate in the tubular layer. If you put the raw materials in salted water, after 10-15 minutes the garbage will pop up.
After this, the water is drained, and the mushrooms are well rinsed. If darkening is detected on the leg or hat, this area must be treated again with a knife. Only after this, the mushrooms are cut for further cooking.
Important! Cleaning the collected mushrooms should be done no later than 5 hours after collection: the raw flesh quickly collapses and loses its useful properties.
Before freezing, the raw materials are also thoroughly cleaned, but not washed, because the flesh has the property of a sponge. If you wash the mushroom, the water under the influence of low temperatures will turn into ice and destroy the tissue of the product. Such boletus becomes not tasty, brittle and loses most of its useful properties. The hat and leg are best cleaned with a soft-brushed brush and a damp cloth.
Video: how to freeze porcini mushrooms
Drying mushrooms at home and pamper yourself with your favorite dishes all winter is the task of every mushroom picker. Dry raw materials have all the useful qualities of a fresh product, and also do not lose their taste and aroma. You can use dried mushrooms in soup or stew, as well as when frying, stewing or baking.
Part of the mushrooms can be ground into powder and used as a seasoning for vegetables, meat, poultry or side dishes. Before drying, only dry processing of raw materials is carried out without water and even wet wipes. The main task is to get rid of moisture, and not add it to the pulp.
Borovik is a gourmet product that belongs to the first taste category of mushrooms. The quality of dishes prepared with it is very high, but in many respects depends on the proper preparation of the product.