What equipment is required for growing champignons
This article suggests familiarizing yourself with the necessary equipment for growing champignons. To make the right choice and purchase the necessary installations, first you need to understand what kind of room you need, because based on its size you can calculate the volume of production. It is also important to consider the profitability of purchased and installed equipment. About all the mentioned aspects - further in the article.
Mushroom cultivation for sale
So, the first thing to consider:
- area of premises for growing, storage;
- enterprise capacity (production);
- the number of products that need to be stored.
Important! In order to avoid the growth of bacteria in mycelium, it is necessary to protect the soil with special compounds, which are based on lime and copper sulfate.
There is recognized European equipment that is widely used on a large scale. For a small business, various devices are often used that are used in similar production. This allows you to save on the purchase of working capacity.
You can also start a business project with the purchase of equipment (used) at lower prices.The premises can be purchased, rented and used, which was previously equipped for the production of mushrooms. Renting the latter for a novice businessman, of course, is logical and prudent.
In addition to premises and technical equipment, of course, mycelium is needed. Buy soil with disputes from such companies that have been operating on the market for several years and have established themselves in this industry.
Mushroom cultivation in open beds is not suitable for running a private business due to the fact that a lot of effort is invested and the result is low. For small farms, a container system is great. With this method of cultivation, you can pick mushrooms several times a year. The richest harvest is after the second and third harvest.
Profitability, equipment for growing
Relative indicators that make it clear how cost-effective it is possible to grow mushrooms (i.e. profitability) are important when starting a private business. Consider an example: one growing cycle is 2 months, taking into account this period, approximate figures of costs and revenues are given:
- Expenses. The businessman will spend 140 thousand rubles on the acquisition (manufacturing) of 30 tons of compost.
- Revenues. As a result, the harvest is about 6 tons of mushrooms, which in rubles corresponds to a profit of 600 thousand rubles. However, all preliminary costs are not taken into account here.
The list of expenses will include:
- acquisition of compost components - 20 thousand rubles;
- the purchase of mycelium - 10 thousand rubles;
- heating, pasteurization of the soil - 50 thousand rubles;
- salary to employees.
Champignons grow in the dark. Light is necessary for the farmer to carry out the work. Use energy-saving types of lamps. Place them along installations with mushrooms, closer to refrigerators. The maximum operating time of lighting equipment is half a day.
Mushroom cultivation rooms must have high humidity. Therefore, the main rule when laying electrical networks is compliance with fire safety standards. Use corrugation, silicone and rubber insulation of the lighting wires.
Important! Mycelium should be planted at a substrate temperature not lower than +24° C.
Climate control system
Mushroom growing needs special conditions that are supported by the climate control system. Climatic installation includes:
- a mixing chamber for regulating carbon dioxide and condensate drain;
- filters for air purification;
- ventilation for fresh air with valves that are controlled by electric actuators;
- heaters for heating and temperature control, for draining the air (depending on the phase of growth of mushrooms);
- heat exchange system (lowering or increasing air temperature);
- air distribution (with exhaust hood).
Climate control allows you to regulate humidity, ventilation, temperature. We should also pay attention to the irrigation system.
Champignons for irrigation need water with a temperature of at least + 18 ° C. Special foggers (fog generators) irrigate with a fine suspension of water. Throughout the entire period of cultivation of mushrooms, the operation of irrigation plants can be regulated relative to the period of growth of champignons. Another method of watering is mounting a multi-tier watering "tree" with water meters.
Did you know? Back in the 18th century, champignons in Paris were considered a delicacy and were very expensive.
During the ripening period of fruiting bodies, air ventilation and its purification from dust and microspores are extremely important. This is achieved by installing fine and coarse filters. Fans provide an influx of fresh air and distribute it evenly, prevent drafts, and filters trap the smallest litter. An air extract eliminates settled spores in a qualitative way to avoid their excessive accumulation.
Ventilation when growing champignons is adjusted relative to the growth phases. Another most important function of the ventilation system is the removal of carbon dioxide, which negatively affects the life cycle of mushrooms. Information about the systems that support the growth of mushrooms throughout the growing season was presented above, and now you need to understand what cameras are needed to grow and store mushrooms.
You can purchase specialized equipment - PVC cameras with climate control. They are very comfortable. All you need to do is fill them with substrate and start the mode of maintaining growth conditions. Inside such chambers, a device has been thought out to ensure a constant microclimate, necessary for the formation of mushrooms and regulated as they grow. The main advantage of such chambers manufactured industrially is the tightness, which prevents the spread of fungal spores.
Plants for growing on racks made of materials resistant to corrosion are placed. Duralumin or coated metals are suitable. There can be racks in each chamber, for example, two with six tiers, between which the distance is 0.5-0.6 m.
It is rational to place the microclimate system above the central passage. The autonomous automation, which is provided for the cameras, includes: humidity control, temperature control of the substrate and the influx of fresh air or exhaust. It is useful to set an alarm to indicate the temperature limit.
Important! All mushrooms absorb various substances from the air, so farmer and greenhouse champignons are safer than others - they are protected from toxic gases and impurities, such as are present in the atmosphere near roads or industrial enterprises.
Refrigerators and left-luggage offices
The optimal mode for storing champignons varies in the range from 0 ° С to + 5 ° С. Room humidity should not be less than 80%.
In cool rooms and chambers, mushrooms are packaged. After packaging, the products are stored in industrial refrigerators. Two types of cold rooms are needed: for quick cooling and direct savings. The first, carrying out shock freezing, maintain the temperature below -35 ° C. Such a “shock” freeze prevents the destruction of the structure of fungi.Storage refrigerators should be half full so that there is free space for air flow. Shelf life - 3 days.
Cost of equipment
See the approximate prices for champignon cultivation equipment, which are given in the table.
|Name||Cost, rubles per item|
|A complete set of equipment (includes ventilation, irrigation systems, etc.)||from 2 million|
|Rack with five shelves for climate chambers||from 1 800 per m²|
|Collection trolleys||from 50 thousand|
|Climate chamber||1,600 thousand|
|Steam generators||65-120 thousand|
|Watering system valves and timers||4-10 thousand|
|Analog Water Regulators||1-3 thousand|
|Shock freezing unit||450 thousand|
|Humidity and temperature controls||25-50 thousand|
What equipment can you do yourself
The following systems of equipment for cultivating mushrooms can be constructed independently:
- Humidifier (it includes: an ultrasonic steam generator, a power supply unit, a 20 liter plastic bucket with a lid, a float consisting of a plastic container and a piece of foam, two sewer bends, a small cooler).
- A refrigerator compartment from used refrigerators and a fan.
Did you know? The most expensive mushrooms in the world are truffles. They can be purchased at prices ranging from 500 to 1,000 dollars or more.
If you are going to implement a mushroom growing project, there are many things to consider. The most important is the room for cultivation, storage of champignons. You can save by renting already equipped areas or buy suitable property. All necessary equipment can also be bought. Or make it yourself if you wish. In any case, it is important to pre-calculate financial investments and be able to anticipate associated costs.