Oyster mushrooms: composition, what are useful, how to use, contraindications
Oyster mushroom can be called one of the most popular and farmed mushrooms around the world. It is unpretentious and capable of excellent growth, both in nature and on an artificial substrate, while it differs in a whole complex of compounds important for human health. That is why every year the volume of cultivation of this fungus only increases. The article describes in detail the properties and morphological characteristics of oyster mushrooms, as well as the main benefits and harms of the fungus for adults and children.
Oyster mushroom is a typical representative of the family oyster mushrooms, of the same genus. This is one of the most popular industrial mushrooms, which can be successfully grown on your own garden, with a minimum set of specific skills. In the natural environment, the species can be found in the forests of the temperate zone, in small groups. This is a saprophyte organism, the main substrate for its growth are all kinds of woody residues.
Did you know? For the first time, mushrooms were grown under artificial conditions about 2 thousand years ago, in the territory of Southeast Asia. The first cultivated species at the same time became the popular shiitake mushroom, which grows on dead wood.
This contented mushroom is large and massive, the average diameter of the hat is in the range of 5–15 cm, with a maximum mark of 30 cm. It is often solid, rounded, but hybrids with an ear-shaped and conch-shaped form are also found. The color of the cap's peel is uniform; as it grows, the shade can change from light gray to brown. The hymenophore in this species is lamellar. The plates are quite rare, up to 15 mm thick. In actively growing specimens, the color of the plates is white, but as the fruit body ages, it changes to yellowish or gray tones.
Unlike a hat, the leg is rather thin and short, up to 5 cm long. At the same time, it has a dense and elastic flesh covered with soft white skin. At the base of the leg, the shade can change to light brown tones.On the cut, the body of the fungus is dense, elastic and juicy, saturated white. As they mature, the elasticity of the tissues is lost, the mushroom becomes stiff and fibrous. The mushroom smell is not pronounced, practically absent, the taste is quite delicate, with a characteristic flavor of anise. The mushroom grows in a common bush, which includes up to 30 fruiting bodies. The average weight of one oyster mushroom is 100-200 grams.
Video: picking oyster mushrooms
Chemical composition and calorie content
The main feature of this variety of mushrooms is their rich and rich chemical composition. This allows you to recognize the product as valuable and necessary for a daily diet. It allows not only to maintain one’s own health, but also to prevent even the most serious illness.
Vitamins and BJU
The first thing that oyster mushroom can boast of is the real vitamin complex contained in the pulp. That is why her daily intake can cover a person’s vitamin needs: A, B1, B2, B4, B5, B6, B9, D, D2, PP. In addition, the content of beta-carotene, biotin and betaine can also be found in the pulp.
The nutritional value of oyster mushroom.
|Substance||Amount per 100 grams|
|Alimentary fiber||3 g|
|Fatty acid||0.03 g|
|Calorie content||38 kcal|
Minerals, micro and macro elements
In addition to an increased concentration of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and other nutrients, this type of mushroom is also known for its value as a source of a set of rare trace elements extremely useful for the body.They do not contain a single artificial component, therefore they are absorbed many times more active than the most effective medical complexes.
In the product you can find a huge amount:
Today, there are no serious contraindications for the use of oyster mushrooms, the main thing is to include the product exclusively in heat-treated form in the diet. Raw flesh can trigger digestive upset, with all suggestive manifestations. However, it should be mentioned that a specific substance, chitin, was found in the composition of oyster mushroom (it provides rigidity and elasticity of the cells of the fruiting body). It is not recommended to use it in excess for patients with cardiovascular diseases, as well as for kidney pathologies, in order to avoid deterioration of the general condition of the body.In addition, do not overly get involved in the product for elderly people and allergies. Mushrooms are, first of all, a source of potent compounds and active substances, therefore, with weakened immunity, they can provoke all kinds of allergies and disrupt the gastrointestinal tract.
Often young mothers are asked how old a baby can be to give mushrooms, including oyster mushrooms. Today, there is a lot of controversy surrounding this, but most doctors agree that the children's digestive system is often not able to process mushrooms quickly and efficiently. That is why every mother should know that it is not recommended that young children include even derivatives of this food product in their diet, up to 12 years.
Important! In a week, an adult healthy person is recommended to eat no more than 600 g of prepared mushrooms, otherwise they can burden digestion. At the same time, the product should be consumed in small portions, in the most crushed form.
Useful properties for the human body
Oyster mushrooms are on the list of few products that, with moderate use, can have an effective therapeutic effect on the body. This is explained by a special ratio of important vitamins and minerals, which can reduce the activity of pathological processes in organs and tissues, as well as the content of all kinds of toxins.
Lowering cholesterol and avoiding atherosclerosis
Most people over the age of 40 face the problem of cholesterol. Poor nutrition and all kinds of metabolic and endocrine diseases lead to the fact that fat metabolism is disturbed in the body, and insoluble lipid compounds gradually accumulate in the vessels. Over time, this leads to a violation of the elasticity of blood vessels and their muscle layer, after which, without fail, chronic atherosclerosis occurs.
Oyster mushrooms are best to reduce the manifestations of the disease, as well as lower the level of bad cholesterol. Replacing only 1% of the diet with freshly prepared mushrooms makes it possible to activate metabolism, and also, due to a decrease in vitamin PP deficiency, normalize fat metabolism. In just a short period, this helps to restore healthy vascular activity, as well as reduce blood cholesterol and subcutaneous fat by about 10%.
However, there is some amendment to this rule. The mushroom should be eaten exclusively in boiled or stewed form, in small portions. Cooking by frying in oil removes the therapeutic effect of the product to almost zero, so in order to cook a really healthy dish, all the basics of the diet should be strictly observed.
Did you know? Oyster mushrooms are real predators. During their growth, they can paralyze small roundworms and feed on them, in this way the mushroom gets the nitrogen necessary for development.
How diabetics lower sugar
One of the latest discoveries of scientists was the protective action of oyster mushrooms against diabetes and high blood sugar. With a minimum amount of fats and carbohydrates, the product contains record concentrations of vitamins and minerals, which are important for maintaining a healthy metabolism. At the same time, every diabetic should remember that health benefits and therapeutic effects can only be expected if strict product preparation rules are observed.
First of all, mushrooms should be cooked correctly, with increased sugar the product can be boiled, stewed and baked in the oven. Fried mushrooms are not able to lower the concentration of sugar in the blood, so they are prohibited. It should also be borne in mind that no matter how much health benefits oyster mushrooms bring, they are allowed to be consumed only in moderation. You can eat no more than 100 g per week of the finished product, while it is recommended to divide this portion into 2 doses, with an interval of several days.
What are useful for pregnant
Despite the fact that mushrooms are considered quite heavy food, each pregnant woman is obliged to periodically enrich the diet with freshly prepared oyster mushrooms.
- Thanks to this, you can:
- improve immunity;
- protect organs and tissues from cell mutations;
- strengthen the heart system;
- activate blood circulation;
- have a general positive effect on digestion.
Important! During pregnancy, it is allowed to eat mushrooms stewed, baked, boiled and slightly fried. Pickled dishes should be discarded, they practically do not contain useful substances, and at the same time they can become a source of botulism.
In addition to great benefits, in some situations, mushrooms can cause health and harm. Doctors strongly do not recommend abusing the product, overeating oyster mushrooms threatens heaviness in the stomach, flatulence, diarrhea and other manifestations of indigestion.
It is also necessary to take into account the fact that fungi often ambiguously affect the work of the heart and kidneys. Therefore, for any pathologies of these organs, you should introduce the product into the diet with extreme caution, and only under the supervision of physicians. In addition, allergy sufferers can also cause fungi, causing an acute manifestation of the disease.
Oyster mushrooms are one of the most valuable foods, important for maintaining the entire body. The rich vitamin and mineral composition makes it possible to alleviate the course of atherosclerosis, diabetes and other metabolic ailments, as well as achieve beneficial effects on the immune system. However, the product should be eaten in moderation, otherwise it can cause allergies or serious digestive upsets.