Varieties of mushrooms oily
One of the most popular among mushroom pickers is considered an oiler. This type of mushroom is the most numerous and widespread throughout our country. In total, there are about 40 different types of butter. Almost all of them are edible, although there are those that harm a person. Due to the danger to life, the mushroom picker should know how to distinguish a bad mushroom from a good one.
The butterflies are photophilous. The most common and successfully grow in both coniferous and mixed forests. It is difficult to find them in the dark thickets, so the collection usually takes place in the meadow, along the side of roads and paths.
Mushrooms got their name because of the peculiarity of the cap. The oil cover on their surface has a significant viscosity and is covered with sticky mucus, as evidenced by the frequent adhesion of pine needles, leaves and dry grass. The hat usually has a convex or flat shape, is smooth. When you feel it, you can find a characteristic sticky substance. Immediately after cutting the mushroom, its flesh in this place acquires a bluish or red hue. Spores and the powder consisting of them are colored yellow.
Important! The butterdish is digested for a long time. Therefore, its use should be abandoned to those who have problems with the digestive tract.
Edible types of butter
Edible mushroom can be distinguished by several features, which during the collection must be seen on time, so as not to poison.
Among them, the edible:
- unusual aroma;
- bright color;
- non-standard pulp structure under the cap;
- lack of characteristic gloss of mucus.
Pine gray grease fitting is one of the most common, in young pine and larch forests, edible species. It grows most often in small groups. The diameter of the mushroom cap reaches a size of 8 cm. Despite its name in the forest you can often find olive, red, white and yellow shades. They grow in deciduous forests, in sunny places. The main difference is the adhesive surface of the hat.
The peel is easily and simply detached from the surface. The gray oiler has brown spores. The leg has a specific ring, which is distinguished by a yellow-pale color. Hard to the touch. The flesh is whitish, and at the place of the cut, the blue begins to appear almost immediately. The collection of these mushrooms begins in early July and ends in late October. Ideal for pickling.
Did you know? The population of Brazil, Africa and Japan does not have a tradition of picking mushrooms, although they grow and are eaten here.
Many mushroom pickers claim that it occurs in nature with a yellowish tinge, although the name implies: the vast majority of the mushroom is white. Its surface is smooth, covered with mucus during precipitation. Butthe roe does not have a ring characteristic of other species and grows up to 9 cm. The first mushrooms can be found already in June, although the peak of development reaches in October - November. It is believed that the most delicious are the young white butterflies. After collection, they quickly deteriorate. Therefore, they should be prepared immediately.
Common oiler , which in different regions can be called late, autumn, yellow or present. They grow, as a rule, in young pine trees, but occasionally grow in oak forests and birch forests. They do not need constant sunlight, therefore, they are often found near tracts and on glades, more often in forests. Real mushrooms like to hide from the eyes of mushroom pickers under leaves or pine fallen needles. They can develop well in sandy soils.
They never grow near water bodies. At an early stage of growth, the hat has a rounded convex shape, which gradually becomes flatter. The pulp has a characteristic pale yellow color, dense and fleshy structure. The cylindrical shape of the leg reaches a maximum of 5 cm in height. It grows to the first frost. Subject to great influence from worms and insects.A variety of oily grainy - edible. The people also meet another name for the fungus - early or summer. Often lives in large numbers in pine forests and clearings, in young plantings and at the edges, in small clearings. It grows in sandy and limestone soils. Has a round-convex hat up to 10 cm. The skin has a characteristic brown or rich yellow color. During rain, it is covered with mucus. This subspecies of mushrooms has almost no aroma. There is no characteristic ring on the leg. It is on it that there is a small graininess, which gave the name to the butterdish. The dense pulp is very tasty during any cooking.
Swamp Oiler, based on the name, most often found in wetlands. Pine forest, rarely deciduous, is the place of its growth. It is almost always found near large accumulations of moss. The hat has a convex shape and a diameter of about 7 cm. Slime is present on it almost always due to increased humidity.
The pulp has a reddish tint and a very pleasant smell. The mushroom leg reaches a maximum height of 7 cm and is distinguished by its thin structure. There is a ring on it, which first turns greenish, and by the time of collection acquires a brown color. They grow in a small area in groups. Harvest in warm autumn and late summer.
Cedar oil also eaten. This species can be found exclusively in places where cedar grows, and, accordingly, is found in Siberia and the Far East. Mushrooms choose the warmer southern slopes or, enriched by sunlight, glades near a large cluster of moss. The hat has a diameter of not more than 10 cm. It differs in spherical shape with curved inward edges and a brown color. The pulp has a specific loose structure. After some time, the place of the slice acquires a characteristic orange color.
The aroma resembles the needles of cedar. The fungus secretes a colorless liquid that accumulates under the cap, which is why it received the second name - floating. The foot reaches a maximum height of 10 cm. Differs in a cylindrical form with small granular educations. It is found in nature in yellow or pale yellow. Harvesting starts from mid-summer and lasts until late autumn.
Did you know? In some countries, there is a mushroom that itself can move around - plasmodium. In just one minute, it can overcome up to 0.5 mm.
In nature, cream or brown are found. A distinctive feature is the difficulty in separating the plates from the pulp of the cap. The leg always has a dense and fleshy structure without a ring. It is always covered with mucus due to which there is a sticky effect. The surface is grainy. The height rarely exceeds 6 cm. Bellini is not whimsical in cooking, which makes the mushroom very popular among cooks. Delicate taste is emphasized by a specific mushroom aroma.Belted Oiler often found under another name - chestnut. Its peculiarity is that, unlike its relatives, it grows only in deciduous forests and parks. More common in North America and Eurasia. The mushroom has a thick red-brown hat, which grows up to 10 cm around the circumference. The pulp has a characteristic yellow color and is characterized by meatiness. The leg of light brown color grows in the shape of a cylinder and a double ring, reaches a maximum height of 12 cm. Its surface is covered with small scales and quite fibrous in composition. Most often found in groups. The first chestnut oil can be collected in July, the last - in October.
Trent mushroom - very rare. For the most part, it is not harvested due to difficult access to the growth site. He loves alpine coniferous forests and limestone soil. The hat can reach an impressive 15 cm in diameter. It is characterized by a characteristic orange tint, which, as it ripens, turns into red-brown. During the growth period, a thin film forms under the hat, connecting it to the leg. Red fibers bulging outward create a scaly surface and are red. The leg, with a red color, reaches a height of 11 cm. It grows in large numbers from July to October. As a food, it is used for cooking various dishes, pickling and drying.
Poisonous oils are called false. On the territory of our country, you can find the three most common types. In order not to get into a difficult situation, for a long time not to be treated for the consequences of poisoning and not to accidentally bring a dangerous mushroom from the forest, you need to familiarize yourself with them.
Important! Among people, it is believed that drinking food from poisoned mushrooms with alcohol, you can avoid intoxication. In fact, strong drinks only accelerate the absorption of poison.
- Yellow-brown oiler, which immediately after cutting the legs acquires the characteristic blue color of the pulp. Like the usual edible type, it grows from mid-summer to the end of autumn, right up to the first cold weather. You can meet him in the swampy areas of coniferous forests. The hat most often reaches a large size equal to 15 cm in diameter.The main difference between the fungus is the characteristic color of the skin and scales of a dark yellow color. It has no characteristic shine. The shape of the legs is cylindrical, has a dense structure and a brownish tint. There is no ring on it that forms in edible oils. The mushroom is not allowed to be eaten under any circumstances. It is considered conditionally edible.
- Siberian the species grows in groups. It grows only in coniferous forests. The hat has a specific pale color with a yellow tint. Red specks appear on mature mushrooms. The dense structure of the pulp has no smell or taste. Over time, the slice acquires a repulsive purple or brown hue. The leg, unlike edible mushrooms, is always curved, covered with small specks. It can get into the mushroom box from the beginning of summer until late autumn.
- Wet spruce resembles a butterdish in appearance, although it is not. She is often brought home by amateur mushroom pickers, and therefore she must be on the list of poisonous mushrooms. The mushroom can be met from mid-summer to late autumn in coniferous and mixed forests.The main advantage is that it is extremely difficult to find. Like butter, the hat of mokruha is covered with sticky mucus. It has a specific gray tint. Under the hat there is a webbed structure, which differs from the sponge oiler. The characteristic gray or brownish hue acquires only closer to autumn. Therefore, it is often confused with gray species of edible mushrooms.
Butterflies have always been an integral part of Slavic culture. They were collected in forests in large quantities, salted and pickled, added to the first dishes. The mushroom has an unusual and rich taste and aroma. Not surprisingly, it remains very popular among modern mushroom pickers. However, even such a feature as a slimy hat is not always its primary sign of edibility. Therefore, in the forest you should behave carefully and carefully choose only really healthy mushrooms. The above description will help during the collection not to bring poison to the family.