How to grow ceps in the country
Mushroom plantation in culture is unlikely to surprise anyone today: oyster mushrooms, champignons, shiitake - this is a small list of cultivated species. So the white mushroom, revered almost all over the world, interested gardeners with the opportunity to grow it in summer conditions.
Short description of porcini mushrooms
The mushroom has a large fruiting body: a club-shaped or cylindrical pedicle, white with brownish, speckled brown specks. Some specimens increase the bottom to 10 cm in thickness. The hat is convex on top, on the inside is flat, like the bottom of a plate. The diameter in an adult reaches 30 cm.
The surface is painted in a brownish tone, depending on who the mycorrhiza is formed with, the shade of the hat may contain more red or dark brown. Borovik, the second name of the porcini mushroom, has a fleshy, fibrous pulp that does not darken at the cut. Taste and aroma rich mushroom with nutty notes.
Growing conditions and agricultural technology
In natural conditions, boletus fruiting in the warm season: June - October, and in warm regions, the first fruits appear in May. On the plot you should engage in the germination of spores in a soil warmed up to at least + 9 ° C.
Successful crop cultivation requires a certain regime:
- temperature - + 18 ... + 28 ° С;
- humidity - 60%, not less.
Video: Growing porcini mushrooms on the site
Borovik does not tolerate the proximity to fruit crops, the mycelium may die. Borovik forms mycorrhiza with deciduous and coniferous trees:
- Birch tree;
Open ground preparation
You need to grow mushrooms on suitable soil - loam or sandy loamy soil. If the cottage is heavy, it should be diluted by adding sand along with digging.
Immediately before planting, the soil must be decontaminated:
- biological products (Trichodermin, Fitosporin, dilute and pour according to the instructions);
- pour with a solution of potassium permanganate;
- clean mechanically from weeds and plant debris.
In the forest you need to find a meadow with the right tree (the boletus, dug under a birch, will not grow under a pine tree) and dig up a mycelium, capturing a layer of soil and pieces of bark that fell from a tree or needles.
The sequence of actions during landing:
- Dig a top layer of soil (25-30 cm) under a tree on a plot at a distance of 70 cm around the trunk.
- Place a mixture of soil with samples and plant residues brought from the forest into the excavation, add 0.5 kg of humus.
- The mycelium is planted on top of the mixture and sprinkled with needles, foliage and sand.
In many garden shops you can find mycelium produced in the laboratory. The seed package is designed for an area of 3 m².Sowing can be carried out in May. Instruction:
- Dig a layer of soil under a tree according to the previous example.
- A layer of bark, needles, foliage at least 10 cm thick is laid at the bottom of a kind of hole.
- On top of the same layer of humus.
- The required amount of mycelium is mixed 1: 1 with sand, distributed evenly over prepared soil.
- Cover with another layer of humus so that possible rainfall does not wash the crop.
- In both cases, after sowing, irrigation of the soil is carried out: watering can or drip. The soil should get wet 12-17 cm deep.
When there is already a crop, you can engage in propagation of the crop. Do this as follows:
- One large fruit must be left in the garden so that it overrides.
- Then his hat, which contains spores, is crushed by removing the skin.
- The mass is placed in a container (you can 1 liter jar), add 5 g of sugar, 20 g of yeast and add clean, preferably spring water.
- The mixture should stand for 2 weeks in a warm place.
- After that, 150 ml of mushroom infusion is brought with pure water to a volume of 10 l and the selected soil is shed.
- Then carry out normal watering so that moisture, seeping deep into, pulled the spore material.
Difficulties when growing boletus usually do not arise, but sometimes out of inexperience novice mushroom growers make mistakes.
Useful tips from successful farmers:
- The tree under which the mycelium is dug, and where it is planned to grow, must be of the same species.
- Be sure to study the difference between a real boletus and an inedible bile fungus.
- The specimen selected for reproduction by spores should be soaked immediately after collection: spores and flesh quickly decompose.
- When watering the beds do not overdo it with watering. The soil should always be moist 15 cm deep, but not wet. Under one tree, enough 40 liters of water.
- When soaking the pulp for breeding, you can use alcohol instead of sugar. For 10 liters of liquid, 4 tbsp is enough. l alcohol.
- Sowing is carried out no later than September, otherwise in the winter time the mycelium will die before it takes root.
- The place should be lit, and the crown of the tree will give a slight shadow.
- Landing is carried out on cool, cloudy days.
Thus, it is not difficult to grow and enjoy your own harvest of ceps. The main thing is to follow the rules of planting and collecting material.