Truffle mushroom: composition and BZHU, properties, contraindications
One of the world's most popular delicacies is truffle. The taste and smell of the mushroom do not leave indifferent even avid gourmets. Truffle is an expensive treat all over the world. Truffle refers to a variety of marsupials.
In a round or tuberous form, the famous delicacy looks like potatoes. The diameter of the treat can be up to 10 cm, but most mushrooms are slightly larger than a walnut in size. Outside, the truffle can be covered with polyhedral warts or be smooth.
Cutting the delicacy diagonally, you will see the middle, in which white and dark veins are located in turn. The color of the flesh of the delicacy depends on the type of mushroom and can be chocolate, black, white and gray. About 100 varieties of mushrooms are included in the genus of the fungus truffle, they are classified by habitat or gastronomic value. A famous delicacy on the outside can have a black, white, red shiny color.
Where, how and when they grow
The famous delicacy lives in deciduous, mixed forests under some trees:
- black summer truffle grows in Central Europe, Scandinavia, Ukraine under beech, hornbeam, oak;
- Piedmontese grows in northern Italy, forming a merger with the rhizome of linden, mountain ash, birch, poplar, elm;
- winter truffle lives in groves of France, Switzerland, Crimean mountain forests;
- white Moroccan can be found in forests on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa under oak, cedar, pine;
- black perigorsk grows in groves of Switzerland, Spain, France under an oak, hornbeam, beech.
Important! The fruit body of the truffle cannot be seen with the naked eye, it is in the ground and can reach a depth of up to 40 cm.
The delicacy lives in the earth in groups of 3 to 7 fruiting bodies. Mushrooms have a consistency, which can be fleshy or cartilaginous. Harvesting takes place in autumn, early spring. Hunters attract specially trained animals to gather delicacy.
Video: All About Truffles
Composition and BJU
This mushroom has a high content of vitamins B1, B2, PP, C and trace elements (iron, sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese) that are beneficial for humans, because this delicacy is useful to everyone, especially children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women.
The composition of the fungus includes fats, proteins, dietary fiber, ash, monosaccharides. Also, 100 g of the product contains 4 g of protein. Calorie content per 100 g of delicacy can range from 25 to 59 kcal. This indicator depends on the type of fungus. The energy ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates in truffle is 48: 20: 32%, respectively. Price is a significant barrier to consuming a mushroom in your diet every day.
The chemical composition of the truffle does not have pronounced features. But popularity is due to the fact that the delicacy has the ability to secrete pheromones, when inhaled, the human parts of the brain are involved that are responsible for sensitivity and emotionality.
The usefulness of the fungus is enhanced by antioxidants. Eastern countries use the juice of the famous treat for eye treatment. Also, truffle pulp should be consumed by people who suffer from gout.
Did you know? Truffle extract is used in cosmetology. Doctors say that it smoothes wrinkles, tone the skin and helps in the fight against cellulite.
The mushroom has unique culinary properties.. The famous delicacy is used in the preparation of almost all dishes, ranging from sauce, pate, toppings to pies and ending with the addition of poultry and seafood dishes.
- Known mushroom has contraindications. These include:
- individual intolerance;
- penicillin allergy;
- digestive system problems.
The delicacy accumulates toxins that can contribute to human poisoning. Therefore, it is important to know where he grew up and what the environmental situation is. The main condition before consuming an expensive delicacy is its freshness.
Before consuming the mushroom, it is worth weighing the pros and cons. Make sure there are no allergies or problems with the digestive system. After all, if there is at least one contraindication, it is better to abandon the famous goodies.
Important! Do not buy truffles at a low price from strangers on hand. After all, such a treat — costly pleasure and cannot be cheap.
Truffle Collection Features
When collecting this delicacy, it is worth remembering that he does not like moisture. You need to look for a mushroom near the previously mentioned trees. Mushrooms grow in the same places. After rains, a delicious treat can be washed to the surface. You need to look where the soil is sandy, loose and has a high content of lime.
Trifulau - people who “hunt” for truffles. When collecting mushrooms, it is necessary to focus on the phase of the moon and night time. But these trifulau data are kept secret and passed on from generation to generation.
Dogs, pigs, insects, and bears are helpers to help you find goodies. The pig is the first beast that helped in the search for the famous goodies. This animal can serve up to 10 years. Also good looking for these dog mushrooms. A trained animal can cost a couple thousand American dollars. To search for the fungus, trifulau is preferred to non-hunting female breeds.
Did you know? One hypothesis states that the mature famous delicacy contains anandamide, which in its action resembles marijuana.
In France, they began to search for black Perigord truffles using flies. Yellow insects appear at sunset near the trees, under which there are everyone's favorite treats. But you need to quickly collect them, because the flies can ruin the mushroom. In Russia, bears were assistants in the search for a delicacy. But keeping and feeding the animal was quite expensive, because most often they used dogs.
Warm climate, mixed deciduous forests are the main components for the successful growth and collection of mushrooms. People managed to find a way to grow truffle on special mushroom farms. The first farms appeared in France.
Important! Pests that destroy truffles, — rabbits, wild pigs, weevils, black cockroaches. It is worthwhile to ensure that these pests do not settle on plantations.
Choosing a place for the growth of goodies, it is advisable to take into account such moments:
- the earth should not contain other varieties of mushrooms;
- corresponding soil pH (not less than 7.5 units);
- Before planting seedlings, carry out deep tillage using special equipment;
- for the first time two years, observe the presence of weeds near young trees;
- dry climate;
- air temperature should be from +16.5 to + 22 ° С.
In spring, when there are no frosts, trees inoculated with truffle mycelium are planted. A maximum of 500 trees should grow on 1 ha of land. Seedlings are planted to a depth of 75 cm. Trees must be fed with NPK fertilizer with the addition of micronutrients (iron, zinc, boron, magnesium).Truffle can rightfully be considered one of the most expensive delicacies in our world. It is worth considering that this famous mushroom has many useful properties, few contraindications. To find or grow a treat, you need to work hard, but it's worth it. No wonder this delicacy is adored by the most avid gourmets of the world.