Description of champignon mushrooms, how to cook, the benefits and harms of mushrooms
Although champignon mushrooms are not included in the grocery basket, which the government is counting on the cost of living, nevertheless, due to the low price and excellent taste, they have long and firmly settled in shopping carts from supermarkets.
These mushrooms are always within walking distance in every store near the house. Their purchase can afford people with different income levels. In an attempt to find out the reasons why champignon is so loved by everyone, from small to large, take a closer look at it.
From the end of May to the end of October, the most delicious of the entire numerous champignon family - the field champignon ripens:
- fruit body high density varies in size from 3 cm to 20 cm. The largest specimens from the family growing up to 25 cm are field champignons;
- hat the young mushroom is elliptical in shape, bell-shaped with a blunt top. Scaly is acceptable. The hat cone is truncated, the edges are strongly turned inward, and the inner plates of young specimens are hidden under their own coverlet. Mature mushrooms are distinguished by an open and often convex hat 8–15 cm in size with a silky white-cream texture, the edges of which are located in waves and preserve the rest of the bedspread. In a drought, the hat is cracking. In places of damage and when pressed, the flesh slowly turns yellow;
- records loose, resilient, located often. In color, white, pink, brown with chocolate as they grow. In mature mushrooms, the hymenophore (the lower part of the cap with plates) becomes dark brown, almost black;
- leg 6–10 cm high and 1–2 cm wide, it is flat and expands to the base, first dense, then becomes hollow as it ages. Easy to detach from the hat. The color is the same as the hat - white with a cream tint;
- flesh champignon is dense, white in color, with a specific, but pleasant smell, similar to anise. Aging mushrooms become soft. On a break, it is oxidized to a slight yellowness of an optional pink hue. The taste is sweet;
- disputes dark brown;
- ring - an obligatory attribute of mushrooms of this species. The light ring around the leg at the top consists of 1-2 thin, but wide, brittle layers.
What does it look like
The appearance of champignon is recognizable due to its prevalence: balls or barrels at an early stage, as they ripen, open into a classic white mushroom from a popular print. The smell is inherent only to fresh mushrooms. When buying them, be sure to pay attention to the degree of freshness.
Freshly cut champignon has an even, white or slightly pink color and an attractive matte shine.
Damage to the connecting film between the leg and the hat, its darkening to brown and dark spots on the hat will give out stale goods, which should not be purchased. The shelf life of these mushrooms is small., poor quality will produce a loss of elasticity of the fruiting body: the structure of the pulp on the store shelf is loose and sluggish, under improper storage conditions there is a smell of dampness.
Did you know? Tiny tightly closed champignons will perfectly decorate soup, pizza, salads, even in its entirety. Medium-sized champignons will fit for second courses. Large ripe champignons are rich in taste and are good for stuffing and grilling.
Stickiness and slippery surface indicate a loss of edibility. It is worth remembering that storing champignons at a temperature of + 4 ° C will preserve their useful properties for five days, and room temperature can spoil the mushroom in just 6 hours.
The sizes and quality on store shelves vary, but whatever the choice, first of all, focus on their freshness.
Where is growing
In nature, field champignon or the more common people’s chilli appear anywhere in the world where there is shade, manure (preferably horse), nettle and moisture. Neither the prairie nor the pampas stop the colonization of the globe by numerous representatives of this family.
It is easier to say where it is not - in the conditions of permafrost and deserts, although they even met him in the vast expanses of hot Australia and in the sultry African republics. On the territory of Russia, it is distributed everywhere on soil rich in organic matter. It is useless to look for champignons in an arid summer - they are not there.
The bark of a rotting tree in the forest, the soil of fields, meadow turf, plains or mountains, gardens or pastures, proximity to human habitats or the wild wilderness - these creatures have adapted to sprout wherever there is open space, forming the so-called witch rings. Under the trees are rare, finding champignon under the spruce is the exception rather than the rule.
Edible or not
There are about a dozen edible champignons. There are only two artificially cultivated species. When you buy a kilogram of store mushrooms, the risk of poisoning is completely absent. Such mushrooms are grown from the correct mycelium under suitable conditions where errors are excluded.
But wild forest mushrooms should be handled very carefully: their false counterparts, grebe pale and white fly agaric are poisonous, which means they will predictably cause irreparable harm to the body.
Did you know?The quality of cultivated and wild champignons varies in favor of the latter. Cultivars look presentable, but relatively fresh and tasteless, while the wild have a rich smell and taste. To give aroma and mushroom taste, even a small piece of forest mushroom is enough.
Varieties and doubles
There is a misconception among city dwellers that all varieties of champignons are grown under farm conditions; they cannot be found in forests. But there are species that are not amenable to cultivation. The coppice, yellowish, reddish and pink-lamellar species, for example, is unique in that it can only be found in the forest. But do not rush to cut the mushroom, so similar to champignon.
Ignorance of the varieties does not exempt from the dangerous consequences: the similarity of some with deadly poisonous mushrooms is very great.The trick that may save lives lies in the common property of all safe species - their plates are always pinkish or yellow-brown, and as they grow brown and dark.
The leg is necessarily ringed. It is worth remembering that the plates of young mushroom bodies are almost white, so they can easily be confused with deadly poisonous specimens. Here is the main reason why novice mushroom pickers are strongly advised not to collect forest species.
Usually, the predominant number of species of champignon is edible. The exceptions are those that were grown on straw taken from fields where a huge amount of herbicides and pesticides were used. In other cases, forest, soil and even desert species of champignons are suitable for collection and safe for food.
In addition to the well-known and familiar species, the champignon family has similar, but dangerous varieties. Poisoning occurs with deadly poisonous doubles of champignons, common signs similar to them. Cultivation on an industrial scale does not save the situation, because many people prefer the independent collection of mushrooms that are more fragrant and vivid in taste.
Did you know? In the 19th century, Dr. Lubrier, the caretaker of the Paris market, in an attempt to stop the mass mushroom poisoning, propagated the benefits and safety of mushrooms. The mayors did not heed the request to ban the sale of the remaining mushrooms, poisoning continued. Thus appeared the world's first classification of mushrooms, the pride of the doctor, presented among the high-profile achievements at the World Exhibition in Paris.
If you remember the distinctive features of poisonous snag, the risk of poisoning can be reduced:
- Yellow champignon outwardly very similar to the field one, the same white in color, also hiding more often in a forest shade, sometimes in a field, but a brown speck is clearly visible on the hat in the very center. When pressed, the flesh turns yellow. But these signs do not always help to avoid a fatal error. The main difference is the unpleasant smell of ink, carbolic acid or phenolic compounds when the pulp is damaged. When heat treated in boiling water, it briefly stains water and other mushrooms in a bright yellow color, but it can be difficult to catch this moment. Long cooking does not save against toxins.
- Champignon ploskoshlyapkovy the most toxic of the entire family. Its conical convex hat with scales in the flat central part is characteristically colored in gray-brown color. The edges are tucked, loose plates in the color range from pinkish-white to chocolate. The cylindrical leg at the base is club-shaped thickened. The sharp smell of ink, similar to the smell of phenol, is the main hallmark of toxicity, coupled with yellowing of the damaged pulp.
- Californian champignon Differs in dryness of the cap, white or brown to the center and metallic shimmer. Scales are optional, but sometimes come across. The edges are turned inward in the young. The pulp at the break does not change color or becomes slightly darker. Phenolic smell and a curved leg with a characteristic film ring give toxicity.
False champignon are called toadstool palespring and white fly agaric for strong outward similarity. It must be remembered that a light fly agaric, unlike mushrooms, grows under birches, but they also find it under spruce, in this it duplicates the lifestyle of its non-dangerous relative. False champignons avoid the sun, although there are special cases of detection of such mushrooms on the side of the road.
Important! Of the total number of mushroom poisoning with a toadstool, mortality is at least 70% of cases! False champignon is deadly!
Confusion with the fruit bodies of a deadly toadstool pale can be fatal, so it is important to distinguish them by the following distinguishing features present in the toadstool:
- smooth edges of the cap with a fibrous surface;
- shades of white toadstool border with pale green, light olive and grayish tones without leaving brown;
- in young fruiting bodies the hat is hemispherical, in adults the hat is always open and flat;
- the plates are white and soft, without options;
- at the base, the leg is swollen tuberously;
- the flesh on the cut and when damaged does not change the color;
- complete absence of mushroom aroma.
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning appear after 1-2 hours, while false champignons are a time bomb. It may take about 8 hours after taking the mushrooms before the poisoning manifests itself. At the first sign, emergency care is needed.
The mushroom was cultivated in the 17th century due to a successful combination of unfortunate circumstances. One of the French peasants, who was hiding from war and credit in the tangled catacombs of Paris, found that horse manure blockages blocked the way. For many years it was dumped in the semblance of a sewer. Against a dark fetid background, white champignons stood out brightly.
The enterprising man soon built up mushroom farms, all the passages under the squares of the capital. His commodity helped to cope with the plentiful harvest, which ensured the supply of champignons to all markets. Loans were closed, profitable business brought income. And now hundreds of peasants have taken up this business.
They say that Napoleon banned the further development of mushroom business in Paris, so that because of the numerous underground farms the city did not go underground. Only the construction of the metro was able to finally stop the champignon business in Paris: since then, the main production has been located in the Loire.
Did you know? One of the largest Russian retail chains has established a full cycle of its own production of mushrooms on a site larger than 50 hectares. Such a plant produces about 6500 tons of mushrooms per year.
Mushroom farming is a simple and exciting hobby that makes a profit. Many have learned how to grow edible champignons on their own plot on their own; moreover, the market offers the opportunity to buy already sown blocks. The technology is simple, it is important to observe the conditions for proper cultivation.
1 - hydration and mixing of the substrate; 2 - mixing pasteurized substrate with mycelium; 3 - applying cuts on a bag filled with seeded substrate; 4 - placement of blocks for growing mushrooms on racks with vertical suspension.
If the following conditions are stable throughout the year, no difficulties are foreseen:
- constant temperature in the room varies slightly, from +22 to + 25 ° C;
- humidity does not fall below 85–95%;
- a modified gas environment designed to comply with storage conditions and mandatory ventilation for the growth of mushroom bodies;
- shading to prevent direct sunlight.
When the rudiments of the mushroom body hatch, it is necessary to smoothly, over five days, reduce the air temperature to +14 ... + 16 ° C. Without ventilation, growth will stop. Therefore, air flow must necessarily enter the room.
Important! Mushrooms grown at home, not usually cut with a knife, but twisted from the ground!
Moderate watering with the appearance of the first mushrooms should not exceed the consumption of 1.5 liters of water per 1 m² of planting. Harvested in waves within 3-4 months with a week pause when reaching the maximum size of the fruiting body.
The integrity of the film under the champignon hat should not be violated during their collection and storage.
Mushrooms are dominated by mushrooms in Russia, but the market is still far from full. The leader in production is the United States, in second place in growing France, in third - England, where mushrooms, in general, are very incredulous.
In little Poland, more than 200,000 tons are produced per year, in the even smaller Netherlands more than 300,000 tons, while China is ahead of the whole world, producing 5 million tons per year.
Fresh champignon is considered a low-calorie product, in 100 g - only 27 kcal, it contains water-soluble albumin protein and a huge number of useful trace elements, so it can easily be included in weight loss diets. Fans of healthy lifestyle, vegetarianism, as well as those suffering from anemia or diabetes, simply can not do without it.
100 g of these mushrooms contain: proteins - 4.3 g; fats - 1.0 g; carbohydrates - 0.1 g; ash - 1.0 g; water - 91 g.
- The high content of phosphorus, iron, amino acids, biotin and other active substances in it will allow:
- remove toxins;
- improve the metabolic process in the body;
- tone up your well-being;
- relieve fatigue;
- calm the nervous system;
- to prevent heart attacks and strokes;
- restore gastric and intestinal processes;
- reduce appetite;
- strengthen muscle mass;
- lower cholesterol;
- improve memory and concentration;
- strengthen connective tissue, teeth, bones, skin, hair, nails.
Important! The increased content of chitin in champignons has contraindications for the child's body.Chitin is poorly absorbed in adults and not at all absorbed in children, therefore, in the children's diet no place.
A noble Frenchman from an old family, an old acquaintance of any venerable chef of a Michelin-starred restaurant, and yesterday's graduate of a culinary school, the champignon does not need a long introduction and enumeration of the advantages. Due to its versatility, this mushroom successfully replaces any kind in the most complex recipe and turns an ordinary dish into a festive one, both in appearance and taste.
It was unreasonably attributed in its value to the mushrooms of the fourth category - with mediocre taste and nutritional characteristics.
Soups, salads, preservation, marinades, main dishes, sauces - everywhere there is a place for champignons. Heat treatment reduces the taste and benefits of mushrooms, however, these mushrooms are traditionally used in any form. They can be dried, used in pies as a filling, combined with meat, vegetables, pastries, canned, fried, boiled, stuffed with them.
Freshness is important, the age of mature mushrooms will add stiffness to them when frying. Before using mushrooms, they are recommended to be wiped off with dirt with a wet or dry towel and rinsed quickly with cold water under a stream. Immersion in water for a long time is not recommended, as they quickly gain moisture, losing their taste.
Did you know? Raw champignons taste like nuts in their raw form. This is the usual way to use them in France.
Mushroom juice is used for bactericidal action against skin problems.: ulcers, eczema, rashes, psoriasis, dermatitis. Dry champignon powder is used in the treatment of hepatitis and gastric ulcer. A table for diabetics and a salt-free diet include them in the diet to quickly lower glucose levels. For bronchial difficulties, champignon is used for expectorant effect.
Thiamine and riboflavin, which are contained in this form, successfully fight migraines and headaches. Even with such dangerous diseases as tuberculosis, typhoid, and mumps, the use of fruiting bodies is recommended. According to recent studies, this fungus has a positive effect on cells involved in the fight against cancer, strengthening the body’s immune barrier.
Old mushrooms, especially cut off at the roadsides, serve as accumulators of salts of heavy metals, including lead. Carcinogens, such as sponges, absorb. Negative effects are best prevented by choosing to buy culturally safe fresh champignons in the store.
Mushrooms, despite their beneficial properties, have always been considered heavy foods that slow down the digestion of complex carbohydrates.
Overeating can cause bloatingdifficulty breathing due to belching. In raw mushrooms, hydrazine is a small amount, a toxic compound with carcinogenic properties. From heat treatment, it quickly and without a trace collapseshowever, hydrazine does not leave a choice of raw mushrooms.
Home preservation, on the one hand, is pleasing to the eye, on the other, it carries the danger of the presence of deadly botulinum toxin in a jar of mushrooms.
Canned champignons do not pose a similar hazard. In addition, there are general prohibitions that exclude the potential health hazard from champignons.
- Do not eat them:
- during pregnancy (due to a possible allergen and gastric fermentation);
- in preschool age (the children's stomach is not yet fully formed and can not cope);
- with violations of the gastric and intestinal organs;
- with liver dysfunction;
- with gout;
- with endometriosis;
- in case of individual intolerance.
In Pennsylvania, the oldest limestone mine hosts the largest champignon plantation in the world. The length of the underground galleries is 24 km.
In general, champignon has earned the unconditional right to be called the safest vitamin-containing mushroom, which is available year-round. Delicate, juicy, aromatic, it is able to turn any dish into a refined one and diversify home and restaurant cuisine.