Poison counterparts of summer honey
Honey mushrooms are a common variety of fungi belonging to the Agaric order. Sufficiently known varieties of honey mushrooms are the so-called "seasonal" species: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Despite its unremarkable external characteristics, summer mushrooms gained great popularity due to their excellent taste.
Summer honey agaric, description and photo
Summer mushrooms are representatives of the kingdom of the Mushrooms, united in the Strofariyev family. Like any mushroom, this species has its own special external characteristics.
- Hat. Size can range from 20 to 80 mm. It is highlighted in yellow with a brown tint. The hat can change its color depending on the level of humidity. A convex tubercle is noticeable in the central part, and closer to the edge the surface is flatter. The flesh is quite thin and watery, light brown in color, which becomes darker on the cut. The upper part of the fruit body has a woody aroma and a pleasant aftertaste.
- Plates. These fragments of the hat differ in pale yellow color, and closer to the leg turns into a reddish-brown shade. The plates are poorly fixed to the leg.
- Disputes. They are a powder of dark brown color. Sometimes you can see that the fungi of the lower tier are covered with brown spores produced by the “upper” mushrooms. Therefore, many inexperienced mushroom pickers are mistaken in thinking that the accumulation of mushrooms has rotted.
- Leg. The length of this part of the fungus is 30–80 mm, and the diameter is 5 mm. The slightly curved light brown leg, the lower part of which is painted dark brown, has a cylindrical shape with a brown film circle under the plates. The pulp is much darker and denser than in the hat.
The appearance of the fruiting body in question can be viewed in detail in the photo.
The species in question can also be identified by other signs.
- Spread. This fungus usually grows from early summer to mid-autumn (June – October). The largest amount is collected in July-August. These mushrooms grow on stumps, as well as in wet or rotten wood. It is difficult enough to meet summer mushrooms on conifers.
- Edibility. Summer, as well as other species of honey mushrooms, are conditionally edible. This means that they can only be consumed in boiled and pickled form. In the raw state, such mushrooms cannot be used as food raw materials.
Many mushroom pickers notice that during the gathering of summer mushrooms over these mushrooms, an aggressive mosquito swarm is invariably present.
Video: Summer honey agaric
Due to its characteristics, the summer honey agaric received other names of both Latin and Russian origin.
The species of mushrooms under consideration has the following scientific names:
- Agaricus mutabilis Schaeff;
- Pholiota mutabilis (Schaeff.);
- Dryophila mutabilis (Schaeff.);
- Galerina mutabilis (Schaeff.).
In Russian, the following variations of the names of this type of honey agarics have taken root.
- Talker. The etymology of this word can be found in the Dahl V.I. dictionary, where it is indicated that part of the word “talk” can mean a blister or bubble. Which is explained by the shape of the cap in its central part, and looks like a tubercle or blister.
- Lime. This name is associated with the location of the summer honey fly. Often you can find the species of mushrooms in question on wet linden wood.
- Volatile. Such a name is associated with the hygrophanic property of honey. In dry weather, the hat turns pale, losing its specific characteristics, so it is often confused with other mushrooms. With sufficient humidity, the color of the hat becomes two-tone: young - yellow-brown, old - brown-orange.
Did you know? Among the people you can hear another unusual name for the summer honey — "Varushka." There is an opinion that this name comes from the word "cook". This confirms the fact that the mushroom in question should be consumed in boiled form.
Before you start collecting the summer mushroom, it should be borne in mind that it has many poisonous twins.All doubles differ from the “original” in a darker color of the under the mantle plates - they can be gray-yellow, dark olive. Usually false copies gather in large groups.
Among the dangerous counterparts of the fungus under consideration, the following species are distinguished:
- galley bordered;
- sulfur-yellow honey fly;
- seroplate foil;
- brick red honey agaric.
This species is deadly poisonous. It has maximum twin characteristics with a summer wrap. Galerin contains a very strong poison in its chemical composition, which begins to act after some time.
Usually this inedible species is found in coniferous and mixed forests (where a large percentage of coniferous trees can be traced). Since this mushroom loves needles, it is located on the wood and stumps of this type of tree.
This representative of the plant world has the following botanical descriptions:
- Hat. The diameter of this part of the fungus is on average 30 mm. It has a rusty brown or yellow color. Galerina’s cap differs in a conical shape, turning into a convex, often having a small tubercle. During wet weather, the edging becomes more noticeable. The plates are characterized by an expanded color spectrum of yellow-brown shades. The pulp is yellow with a floury flavor.
- Leg. Elongated, with a fibrous structure, has a characteristic ring, which fades with age and disappears. This part of the mushroom is covered with a light coating.
The action of the poison of the double in question can occur 10 hours after eating the mushroom. Poisonous compounds affect the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of this lesion include vomiting and diarrhea, cramps, thirst, and frequent urination. Medical assistance is required.
Video: Differences between summer honey agaric and fringed galleria
Sulfur yellow honey fly
The considered poisonous double grows on moist wood and stumps of coniferous and deciduous plants. This mushroom is distinguished by such a botanical description:
- Hat. The diameter of the considered part of the fungus is 20–70 mm. This honey agar has the shape of a bell, becoming more open at the edges. The central part is red-gray, at the edges - yellow-gray. Light lemon pulp has a putrid odor.
- Records. They differ in color transition from gray-yellow to dark olive. Elongated spores are collected in powder of a dark brown shade.
- Leg. The diameter of this part of the fruiting body is 3-5 mm. The straight, white-yellow leg has a wavy structure.
The toxic substance of sulfur-yellow honey agaric begins its harmful effect in the body after 1-6 hours. The first signs of poisoning are nausea, loss of consciousness, excessive sweating, vomiting, and diarrhea. In case of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms, the help of a doctor is necessary.
The species in question is conditionally edible. He prefers to grow on conifers - on stumps or roots. Botanical Description:
- Hat. Diameter - 30–70 mm. Young specimens - in the form of a hemisphere, and in adults - a convex-open form. White flesh gives damp.
- Records. The densely arranged plates in young mushrooms have a light lemon hue, and in mature ones they are almost black. Chopped spores are distinguished by a gray-violet color.
- Leg. The length is 50–100 mm and the diameter is 3–8 mm. This part of the honey foil is cylindrical in shape. The color palette of the legs goes from yellow (top) to reddish brown (bottom). The ring quickly turns pale and disappears from the leg.
Brick red honey agaric
Many experts consider the species under consideration to be ambiguous in terms of its edible characteristics: earlier it was classified as poisonous, and today experts say that it is conditionally edible.Despite this, some European countries consider this fruiting body to be completely edible.
The considered twin talkers can be found in mixed forests. They prefer to “master” wood and stumps of deciduous or coniferous (rarely) trees.
This mushroom has the following botanical description:
- Hat. Diameter - 40–80 mm, characterized by the transition from a round-convex shape to half corrugated. The hat stands out in red-gray, brick color. The light lemon pulp of the fruiting body may be slightly bitter.
- Records. In young specimens they are distinguished by a light yellow color, and in mature ones they are gray-brown. The spores are brick-colored with a purple hue.
- Leg. Height - 60–100 mm, diameter - 10.5 mm. From above, the considered part of the fungus is yellowish, turning into a reddish-brown hue. The ring on the leg does not form.
Video: False brick red brick
How not to confuse mushrooms with doubles
It should be noted that most pseudo-heifers grow on conifers. Therefore, mushrooms that infect spruce or pine should be avoided. One of the main differences is the complete or partial absence of the under-the-hat ring. And seroplate honey agarics have a smaller diameter caps.
Also the distinguishing feature is the color scheme of the inner plates under the hat: the original has a light, cream shade, and the false representatives are characterized by a dark, brick, brown or gray-olive color. Many doubles gather in large groups, but it is worth noting that the bordered gallerina prefers to grow alone .The collection of forest gifts is recommended in baskets. Storing mushrooms in a plastic bag or can cause deformation of the fruiting bodies, as a result of which the mushrooms will have an unsightly appearance.
There are conditionally edible doubles, but experts still recommend that mushrooms be carefully selected, because there is no absolute guarantee that they are harmless to humans.
What to do if you still messed up the mushrooms
After a "silent hunt" you need to sort out the mushrooms. An experienced mushroom picker or mycologist will be able to determine by external signs a good mushroom from a bad one. Of course, it cannot be argued that all the doubles of the described fungus are not suitable for consumption. For example, seroplate and red-brick species are considered conditionally edible, and the term “false” in this case implies the presence of lower taste indices.
Did you know? Of all food poisoning, 10% are mushroom poisoning. More than a thousand such cases are registered in Russia every year, among which about 30 — fatal.
The procedure for sorting fruit bodies involves the following actions:
- if in doubt, it is recommended to dispose of the product;
- if it is possible to contact a specialist - you must use his services;
- mushrooms with putrid or pronounced unpleasant odors are inedible;
- if during the break the flesh acquires a red color, then this mushroom is better to throw out;
You can also check in some popular ways. The most common:
- Cooking mushrooms with silver (spoon, coin, etc.). A darkened product is a sign of the influence of toxic substances.
- Heat treatment of mushrooms with onions and garlic, which become brown under the influence of toxins.
- Boiling in acetic salt solution. As a result, disinfection of mushrooms.
Important! All of the above methods, although they are widespread among mushroom pickers and hostesses, you cannot be sure of the absolute result.
Symptoms of poisoning and possible harm to the human body
Mushroom poisoning is a common occurrence these days. The result of the action of mushroom poison can appear almost instantly, and after 14 hours (or more). Symptoms may be different. Among the common signs of fungal poisoning are the following (most often affecting the gastrointestinal tract):
- gastrointestinal colic; "
- general weakness;
It should be noted that a person may feel intense thirst and profuse sweating. There are times when the victim has discomfort in the oral cavity and salivation, frequent urination.
If poisonous substances have affected the nervous system, then symptoms such as hallucinations, loss of consciousness, mood swings (agitation or lethargy) may occur. Damage to the cardiovascular system may be accompanied by a change in heart rate, blood pressure drops. The effects of the poison on the respiratory tract can be recognized if the patient has shortness of breath or shortness of breath.
Symptoms of poisoning depend on the chemical characteristics of the toxic substances, the amount of poisonous product eaten. As previously indicated, the symptoms of poisoning do not always appear immediately, but sometimes it takes more than a day. The longer the toxic substances are in the body, the more dangerous this condition is for human life. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of mushroom poisoning, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible.
Summer honey agaric is an edible fruiting body of the mushroom kingdom, which is distinguished by excellent taste characteristics. Such a product can be used in pickled, boiled, stewed, fried forms. But you should take into account the fact that there are doubles of summer honey fly, most of which are poisonous. Therefore, one should know the external characteristics of the fungi and the distribution area. And in case of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms - immediately call an ambulance.