Growing porcini mushrooms at home
Ceps are edible mushrooms, which are one of the main foods for gourmets. They can grow very tall - up to 30 cm. They are found in natural conditions around the world in deciduous forests near pines, chestnuts and spruces. White is rarely found on sale, so some gardeners try to grow them in garden plots, cottages or vegetable gardens, creating suitable conditions for growth. Read about how to plant mushrooms at home.
Is it worth it to grow?
White is the most famous and coveted of edible mushrooms. Growing in different parts of the world, it is an ingredient in many dishes. This is the owner of a strong aroma that makes the dish more refined. Try sowing white houses to get the perfect diet supplement.
Being an excellent source of beta-glucans, they strengthen the health of the cardiovascular system and support the immune system.
The mushroom is rich in protein and fiber, but contains few carbohydrates and sugars. It is also saturated with amino acids, vitamins B1, B2, C and D, selenium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus. Please note that the content of vitamins and minerals depends on the soil in which it grows.
Did you know? Mulberry sulfur yellow — a mushroom whose taste resembles chicken, so the indigenous peoples of North America call it "forest chicken."
Favorable conditions and a place for growing
Many mushrooms, including ceps, are mycorrhizal. They live in symbiosis with the root system of trees. They absorb water, nutrients from the soil and transfer them to the tree. The latter, in turn, provides them with energy for growth, which receives as a result of photosynthesis. Both plants are completely interconnected with each other.
Therefore, mushrooms do not just grow near the trunk of the host tree, but form a single root system with it - mycorrhiza. And to sow them at home, you must either plant a mycorrhizal partner of the fungus, or try to use rotten wood. Whites interact with both deciduous and coniferous trees.
They appear in the middle of summer. Disappear in the peak heat, and then again grow in autumn in large quantities. Usually they can grow singly or in small clusters of two or three specimens. Growing mushrooms in the garden, stock up on soil from the forest in which they grew.
|Temperature||minimum + 9 ° C; optimal + 19 ° C|
|Humidity||80% appear after warm rains|
|Lighting||sunny areas, but can grow in the shade|
|The soil||fertile; prefer mossy cover and lichens|
|Features of trees with which the symbiosis forms||deciduous and coniferous, about 50 years old|
|Duration of fruiting since the appearance of the first mushroom||30 days|
|The ripening period of one copy||13-15 days|
Methods of growing on the site
The fungus propagates through spores, so you need to get them first. They are located on a hat. For breeding, it is better to take hats 12-15 cm in diameter. But you can buy spores in a specialized store or grab a part of the mycelium from the forest along with soil from under the tree, near which you found white ones.
Did you know? It is noticed that the use of mushrooms stimulates brain activity, so they — An excellent treatment for depression and nervous disorders.
Mycelium is the reproductive part of the fungus. It consists of a mass of branching, filiform hyphae. For development, it can consume various organic and inorganic compounds from the environment.
If you buy mushroom mycelium in a store, then pay attention to what quality the seed will be. It should be saturated red-yellow.. It is recommended to store it until planting no more than 3 months from the date of manufacture.
The mushroom picker can be taken in the forest under the tree where the mushrooms were found. But you need to plant it under the same tree. Land on the same day to prevent the soil from drying out.
For landing you will need:
- Remove the topsoil from the trunk. Depth - no more than 30 cm. You need to take it in the root circle, that is, no further than the circle that the branches of a tree can form if they are projected onto the ground.
- On your site or garden near a suitable tree, remove the topsoil in the same way.
- Mix bark particles, pine needles, moss, brought soil together and fill the recess. Use the material found in the natural environment.
- Cover with soil from above. Seal up.
- Pour from a watering can and maintain moisture throughout the period of mycelium development. It is advisable to pour the liquid as close to the roots as possible. This increases the chance of successful germination of the mycelium.
Video: Planting purchased fungus mycelium
For propagation by spores, caps of ripe mushrooms are needed. Even if they are wormy, they are quite suitable for reproduction. But this method is considered the longest.
You will need:
- Separate the flesh from the cap - a porous material at the bottom of the cap.
- Finely chop with a knife to get a homogeneous mass.
- Put in a bottle or jar.
- To the mass add nutrient medium: 20 g of yeast and 3 teaspoons of sugar.
- Pour with rain water. This is necessary, since tap water is depleted in organic compounds, but may contain harmful ones, such as chlorine.
- Remove the bottle for 2 weeks in a warm and dark place.
- After 2 weeks, dilute the contents with water in an amount of 10 l, strain through gauze. With this composition, water the soil near the mycorrhizal tree.
Keep the soil moist at all times. Remember that the mycelium grows underground and can die without moisture. Harvesting will be possible next year, if the mushrooms are accepted.
Video: How to grow porcini mushrooms from spores
Mushrooms with a hat are divided into 2 groups: tubular and lamellar. Ceps belong to the first group. The tubular layer is the bottom of the cap, which can be separated.
Landing the tubular layer consists of several steps:
- Separate the layer from the cap.
- Cut into small cubes.
- Dry for 2 hours.
- During this time, you can prepare the planting substrate, as when planting mycelium. Place mushroom slices in the recesses. Cover with a substrate and pour with rainwater.
If the soil under the selected tree is quite fertile, then you can simply gently lift it in several places, put the prepared pieces there. Cover them with soil and pour.
Did you know? Mushrooms — some of the oldest creatures on earth. Together with ferns, they existed even before the dinosaurs.
Mushroom care at the stage of growth and development is to maintain optimal conditions. Soil is regularly watered with settled or rain water. You will need up to 5 buckets per week for a plot of up to 1 m².
To prevent drying out, gardeners cover this area with mulch. It can be sawdust, straw, sunflower husk and other materials. Such a layer will maintain constant humidity, preventing the evaporation of water, and will also prevent the growth of weeds, which could interfere with the development of mycelium.
If you like coffee, you can pour the rest of the thick into the garden. It will provide additional nutrition for growing mycelium. The application rate is 1 tbsp. a spoon thick on 1 m² of soil.
Depending on the growing conditions, mushrooms can be picked up a couple of days earlier or later than indicated in the directories. Besides, It is recommended to focus not on size, but on the fact that the cep does not grow longer than 15 days. After that, he just starts to age.
The main rule: start collecting if the caps become convex from concave or plan to collect on the 10th day after the first specimens appear. Given that the fruiting will last about 30 days, Harvest in several stages with an interval of 1-1.5 weeks.
Gardeners often argue how to do the right thing: unscrew the mushroom from the mycelium or cut it with a knife. Most likely this is not of global importance, since damage to the mycelium during harvesting is not dangerous for the mycelium. Collect as you like.
The main success factors in growing mushrooms at home is to create the right conditions for growth: a nutrient medium, temperature, humidity.
Most cellars in the summer will be too warm to grow mushrooms, so consider mushroom planting as a winter project.
Mushroom spores do not contain chlorophyll to begin germination (like seeds), so they depend on the germination environment - sawdust, straw, wood chips, and nutrient fluid. A mixture of spores with a nutrient medium is a prerequisite for a successful start.
Also for growing indoors you will need:
- sealed container;
- planting material;
- scalpel or small knife.
It is recommended to purchase Dutch boletus mycelium for planting. It is resistant to artificial growing environments, and you have more guarantees that it will take root. Before you begin to work, you will need to prepare the room. The surface of the walls, ceiling, floor is treated with 1% chlorine solution.
This disinfects and prevents the development of mold, pathogenic microflora and the appearance of insect pests. Chlorine needs to be treated every day due to the high humidity necessary for the growth of mycelium.
To maintain humidification, containers with water or wet sawdust are installed around the perimeter of the room. Mushrooms need access to fresh air, therefore, it is necessary to create supply and exhaust ventilation. Lighting is dimmed using small daylight lamps.
If it seems to you that it is difficult to grow mushrooms, try to do this using the following simple steps:
- Place purchased mycelium in a culture medium. It can be 20 g of yeast and 3 teaspoons of sugar, diluted in a bottle with rainwater.
- The bottle is tightly corked and left to ferment for 14 days. The internal environment in which germination takes place should not be contaminated with mold or other microorganisms.
- Transfer the germinated culture in a jar of substrate after 2 weeks. It can be buckwheat husks, seeds, sterilized grain, straw, chopped corn cobs, pine needles, sawdust of oak or another tree.
- Before use, the substrate is steamed with boiling water for 2-3 hours.
- After processing, the water is drained. The mass should be springy and moist, but water should not flow from it.
- You can place the substrate in the bank. Germinated mycelium is carefully poured into it. It will begin to grow, gradually capturing the entire capacity.
Now this blank can be distributed in larger containers with a substrate. Then planting material will increase mycelium, so that in 3-4 weeks you will be pleased with the harvest. After some time, the mycelium is depleted, and it will need to be replaced. The main sign of depletion is a decrease in yield.
Care and Harvest
The incubation of mycelium is 10 days. At this time, the room should have a temperature of at least + 20 ° C and a very high humidity - up to 90%. As soon as the hats appear, the room begins to be ventilated, and the temperature is allowed to be kept at lower indicators - about + 10 ° С.
Since porcini mushrooms need sun in nature, lighting the room requires at least 5 hours a day. If the conditions are correct, then fruiting will occur in waves. And the crop can be harvested as it ripens.
Growing mushrooms at home, you provide yourself with environmentally friendly and healthy products. Use simple recommendations and please yourself and your loved ones with harvests.