Raincoat: how it looks, where and when it grows, it's all about the raincoat
One of the unusual types of mushrooms are representatives of the Champignon family - raincoats. They have an unconventional specific fruiting body, inside of which, at the end of ripening, a brown spore powder is formed.
Fans of the “silent hunt” note that the described mushroom has a very pleasant taste and is characterized by high beneficial qualities, in particular, the ability to fight the formation of cancer cells. What does a raincoat look like, and what is its main benefit? More in the article.
Description and photo
The raincoat mushroom, which is popularly called rabbit potato, tobacco mushroom or damn tavlinka, belongs to the Champignon family, but most recently it has been singled out as a separate genus of the Dozhdevikovs. All described fungi are characterized by a pear-shaped or rounded structure of the fruiting body of various sizes, from small to very large, weighing more than 2 kg.
They have a clearly defined hat of white, gray or yellowish color, the surface of which may have a small number of small spikes or warts. Mushrooms have a pseudopod of a similar color, which flows smoothly into the round part.
The flesh of the young fruiting body, as can be seen on the cut, is rather dense, fleshy, appetizing white. During ripening, it becomes yellow, then brown.
After the spore ripens, the pulp is converted into a brown powder, which is thrown out through a special hole. Dark gleb loses all its useful qualities and becomes unsuitable for cooking.
Important! It is the color of the flesh that is considered an indicator of the freshness of the raincoat: white gleb is inherent in young specimens and is great for food, yellow indicates aging of the raincoat and is inedible.
Varieties of raincoat, how to distinguish from poisonous
On the territory of our state, several varieties of raincoats are edible and poisonous. To distinguish them, you need to know the description of each of the species and their main distinguishing qualities.
Among the edible specimens noted:
- Raincoat meadow. It is characterized by small sizes of the fruiting body, from 2 to 4 cm in diameter. The mushroom has a rounded cap shape, which tapers slightly towards the base. The leg is almost imperceptible. The inner part of the fungus is characterized by a snow-white color, with age it becomes yellow, and then brown. The zone of the greatest distribution of fungi of this species, as their name implies, is meadow glades, forest edges, fields.
- Prickly, or pearl. The raincoat is easily recognizable by a miniature fruiting body, up to 5 cm in height, the surface of which is covered with numerous needle formations that quickly crumble upon contact. Young mushrooms have a dense, tasteful, aromatic flesh, which later becomes gray, and then purple-brown. Pearly species appear at the edges of forests, in forests, from mid-summer to September.
- Giant. The described variety is characterized by large dimensions of the fruit body, which has a spherical shape and is able to reach the size of a soccer ball. The surface of the mushroom is smooth, covered with numerous flakes. The inner part of the young giant is white, while the older one is greenish-yellow. Mostly giant raincoats grow individually, bear fruit from August to October. Most of all they are found in meadows and old pastures.
In nature, there are also false, poisonous raincoat species, which are represented by:
- Common raincoat. It differs in a tuberous, thick hat, with a diameter of up to 6 cm, with a smooth strong shell yellowish or brown in color, with a small amount of scales in the upper half. The lower half of the fungus is characterized by the presence of folds. The section shows that young specimens have white flesh, which later becomes almost black and unpleasant in smell.
- Warty Raincoat. Belongs to the category of poisonous mushrooms. It has a tuber-shaped fruit body with a thick, rather stiff peel, which has a gray-yellow, and later brown color. A similar instance produces a specific aroma that combines the smell of raw rotted potatoes and herbs. Fruiting of a false raincoat lasts from mid-May to October.
Edible and poisonous species can be distinguished by their appearance and aroma:
- raincoats unsuitable for food have a more rounded shape, do not have legs, have white, yellow or off-white color;
- false specimens are distinguished by a rather thick, hard peel, under which the rotten flesh of a purple color matures;
- edible mushrooms produce a pleasant, delicate aroma, while poisonous ones smell unpleasantly with raw rotten potatoes.
Did you know? Raincoats got their name due to the fact that their massive growth begins precisely after heavy rains. However, experienced mushroom pickers do not advise picking mushrooms at this time, since their flesh contains an increased percentage of moisture.
When and where raincoats grow
Edible raincoats are not characterized by a specific geographical distribution. Mostly live in mixed or coniferous forests, prefer to grow in open meadows, fields, along roads. On the territory of our state they can be found everywhere, in any climatic zones. The fruiting period starts from the beginning of summer and lasts until October.
Food value and palatability
Raincoats, despite their fairly wide distribution, are among little-known edible mushrooms. They have excellent taste characteristics, are excellent for various cooking methods - frying, stewing, boiling, pickling, etc.
In addition, they have high healing properties, thanks to which they are successfully used for the prevention and treatment of many ailments.
Vitamins and BJU
The raincoat is characterized by a multifaceted, well-balanced composition, which is represented by:
- vitamins A, E, C and group B;
- mineral components: phosphorus, selenium, zinc, manganese;
- inorganic acids;
- antibiotic substances, in particular, calvacin.
Such a rich chemical composition of the fungus makes it highly beneficial for the human body.
- The product allows you to:
- cleanse the blood, remove harmful substances and toxins from the body;
- actively deal with radionuclides;
- improve kidney and liver function;
- stop bleeding, accelerate the healing process;
- due to the content of antibiotic substances, reduce the risk of malignant tumors, block the development of existing ones;
- strengthen the immune system;
- normalize blood pressure;
- to establish the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
The mushrooms described are characterized by low calorie content, which amounts to only 26 kcal per 100 g of raw material, which makes it possible to use it in diet food and in losing weight. BZHU presented: proteins - 4.3 g; fats - 1.0 g; carbohydrates - 1.0 g.
Contraindications and possible harm
Do not forget that in addition to benefits, the use of a raincoat can be associated with some risks to human health.
- Contraindications to eating the product are:
- children under 12 years old;
- individual intolerance;
- genetic predisposition to allergies;
- any disease in the acute stage;
- kidney and liver disease.
With caution should be eaten mushroom dishes for pregnant women and women during breastfeeding. It must be remembered that mushrooms are able to quickly accumulate toxins and harmful substances from the soil, so only those specimens that were collected in ecologically clean and safe regions are suitable for food.
Important! A raincoat, like any other mushroom, is "difficult" for the digestive system, so it is not recommended to eat it at night or on an empty stomach.
Growing at home
Few people know, but you can grow raincoats at home - in your garden, on a plot or under a canopy. The growing technology is quite simple and requires, first of all, the preparation of mycelium, which can be purchased in specialized markets.
Or do it yourself:
- ripen raincoats cut into small arbitrary plates;
- pour raw water into cold water and leave for several days, stirring regularly.
Such infused water with spores will serve as the basis for the cultivation of raincoats.
Next, you need to land the material on the site:
- In a shaded place, under the trees, you can dig a ditch 30 cm deep and 2 m long.
- At the bottom of the trench, lay a mixture of poplar, birch and aspen leaves mixed in equal proportions.
- Lay on top of the deciduous substrate with a 2 cm layer of tree branches of the same species.
- Press the prepared soil tightly, moisten.
- Fill a layer of leaves and branches with 5 cm thick soil.
- Pour mycelium from the top of the soil or pour water prepared with spores.
- Cover with branches.
Planting is regularly recommended to be moistened. When the soil is covered with mycelium, it needs to be covered with a layer of mulch from last year's foliage. The first raincoat crop will ripen a year after planting.
Raincoats are useful, nutritious and extremely tasty mushrooms that are underestimated by domestic mushroom pickers. They are great for any processing - frying, boiling, stewing, marinating. Mushrooms demonstrate high healing properties, are successfully used in cosmetology for the production of creams, anti-aging serums, as well as in traditional medicine for the treatment and prevention of various ailments.