Industrial mushroom cultivation
Borovik belongs to the mushrooms of the first category. It is highly regarded for its aroma and taste. Many fans of boletus are looking forward to the season of their appearance and walk many kilometers through the forest to find and collect them as much more. On these mushrooms, you can try to do your business, trying to grow yourself.
Methods for growing porcini mushrooms
There are two ways to grow ceps on an industrial scale. Their choice depends on the available budget, local conditions and the size of the site.
Such a growing technology will be most profitable in a mushroom area with high humidity and a long warm period. This requires the presence of a forest area with trees with which the porcini mushroom creates mycorrhiza.
An undoubted advantage of this method will be greater savings on equipment and less labor.
Raw materials for growing can be found directly in the local forests.. High yields of this mushroom are collected in coniferous and old mixed forests, in which many birches grow. Depending on the variety of boletus, pine, spruce, birch, oak or beech are well suited.. In the chosen place there should be good diffused lighting, and with strong shading, some of the branches of the trees will need to be cut.
The local climate and weather should also be considered. Active fruiting in this species is observed from July to September at an air temperature of + 15 ... + 18 ° С, and in September it should not be higher than + 10 ° С. Of course, it is almost impossible to influence this in the open. Mushroom cultivation will consist in creating the most suitable soil, planting and regular watering in the absence of rain.
Did you know? Belarusians on a plot of 100 m² for one autumn period, porcini mushrooms with a yield of 500 kg / ha were harvested.
During planting, it is necessary to remove the soil with a thickness of 15 cm by 1.5 meters around the tree, with which the selected type of boletus can form mycorrhiza and distribute planting material along its roots. Then it must be covered with soil, water and mulch with straw from above.
In warm climates, landing is carried out in May, and in the north in August.
This method requires a greenhouse and the necessary equipment.providing optimal conditions for these mushrooms. With it, you have to make the substrate yourself. Its advantage is independence from weather and climate, obtaining a large number of products for a longer time.
In protected ground, mushrooms can be grown when they are no longer in the forests. Such off-season mushrooms will be most readily bought. This method will be most profitable if everything works out.
In the same time this method is also the most risky. Mushrooms that live in symbiosis with trees may not grow on your substrate. Therefore, it is recommended that you first try to grow them in a small area of the greenhouse.
Preparing planting material
These wonderful mushrooms can be grown using mycelium or spores.
To receive a dispute, the following steps must be taken:
- You should choose 10-15 large mushrooms. It is better to choose specimens with hats of at least 15 cm.
- Hats are immersed in water, observing a proportion of 160-200 g per 1 liter.
- Then sugar or alcohol is dissolved based on the ratio of 3 tablespoons per 10 liters.
- The dishes with the mixture for a day put in a warm place with a sufficiently high humidity.
- Then the raw material is ground to a uniform consistency and can be planted.
Video: how to arouse spores of ceps
Mycelium is called the mushroom vegetative body.. It is produced in specialized laboratories.The weighed material is sealed in plastic containers. This material should be purchased at the rate of 0.5 kg per 1 m² of landing area.
Important! When transporting or storing mycelium, it is important to maintain a low temperature regime. The shelf life of the product from domestic manufacturers is short - 2-3 months at a temperature of +2 ... + 4 ° С. Raising the temperature above these indicators sharply reduces these periods, and temperatures above +30°C for several hours can make the mycelium unusable.
You can make mycelium not only in laboratory conditions, but also independently. For this, a portion of the plucked boletus fruit body is placed in a test tube that has passed the sterilization process. For 14 days it is placed in a warm place with a temperature of + 24 ... + 26 ° C. The resulting mycelium is planted in a substrate.
- A good mycelium should look like this:
- by external parameters, it must be painted white, without yellowness or greenish inclusions;
- possess the smell inherent in mushrooms;
- have uniformity of mycelium grains, which can be verified by cutting a couple of pieces.
Planting mycelium occurs in the following sequence:
- at first it is put in the cold for a couple of hours;
- then grind the mycelium in the bag;
- the mycelium and soil are mixed, and then placed on a prepared place for growing with a layer of up to 7 cm.
Before landing and placement of planting material, it is necessary to prepare the substrate. For this, waste from vegetation and trees is used. (husks of sunflower and buckwheat, straw from cereals, stalks and ears of corn, oak, pine, birch sawdust).
You can also add oak leaves, pine needles and pieces of bark. The resulting mixture is ground. Then the substrate is sterilized. It is steamed with water heated to + 75 ... + 80 ° C for 3 hours.
Important! Do not fill the mixture with boiling water, as in this case many beneficial bacteria will die.
After the set time, the excess liquid is drained and allowed to cool to a temperature of + 23 ... + 25 ° C. The mixture should be free from mold and rot. To check the quality of the substrate, it is enough to take part of it and squeeze it in your hand.
If it is well made, it will be resilient without giving off water. In the presence of excess moisture, let the mixture drain for several days, since overmoistening is unacceptable. Before using the substrate, it is best to hold it for about 14 days in a dry and warm room.
A fully prepared mixture is mixed with mycelium or spores.. This process is carried out by wearing gloves. The resulting planting material is placed in polypropylene bags, previously sterilized or special boxes.
Mycelium is placed on a substrate based on the following ratio:
- if the mushroom picker is a domestic producer - 4-5% of the total volume;
- if the mycelium of the Dutch producer is 2–2.5%.
Bags with a substrate are usually packaged in 9-10 kg. Small incisions are made on the sides (about 1 cm). After that, the bags are placed on the prepared shelves with a gap of 5-6 cm between them.
1 - hydration and mixing of the substrate; 2 - mixing pasteurized substrate with mycelium; 3 - applying cuts on a bag filled with seeded substrate; 4 - placement of blocks for growing mushrooms on racks with vertical suspension.
To obtain mushrooms in industrial farms, it is necessary to purchase equipment. Observe the desired temperature will help heaters for greenhouses. After the appearance of boletus, they can be turned off or the temperature reduced. If the growing process is planned for the whole year, then heating should be carried out. You can use a split system for this purpose.
The farm should have a sufficiently high level of humidity. To constantly maintain it, spray guns are installed. They are placed at intervals of 2 m.To maintain moisture it will be good to use sawdust as mulch. White mushrooms will require a certain amount of light.
Important! If there are windows in the room, they should be painted over with lime mortar or white paint to avoid direct sunlight. The light must be diffused.
When growing mushrooms in a room without openings, lighting devices are used for daylight. Fluorescent lamps with a power of 100-180 lux / hour are well suited. They should be marked with a RRL or DRLF, informing about the presence of a red-blue spectrum of rays that are closest to the natural lighting in nature.
Installation of a ventilation system is also required., since natural ventilation is not enough when the mycelium ripens. During this period, it is necessary to ensure the flow of fresh air flows in a more intensive mode.
When installing ventilation, you should also equip the hood at the bottom of the wall or in the floor. This is necessary in order to remove spores, which with large quantities negatively affect human health. For the same reason, you need to work indoors with gauze bandages to protect the respiratory system..
During the growth period, boletus should be watered abundantly. Therefore, you should purchase and install the drip irrigation system. The temperature of the water for humidification should be at the level of + 18 ° С.
Important! Watering with cool water can destroy the mycelium.
To maximize the use of the entire area of the room, you need to install racks. They can be purchased, or can be made with your own hands. Boxes or bags with a substrate will be placed on shelves.
The frequency of harvest depends on the selected variety of mushrooms for growing. Providing all the necessary conditions, it can be collected all year round. When using certain types of porcini mushrooms for growing crops can be obtained after 4 weeks. The fruiting period lasts 42–45 days with an interval of 10–11 days.
Boletus is recommended not to be cut with a knife, but simply carefully twisted so as not to spoil the mycelium. The recess remaining from the mushroom should be sprinkled with a little substrate. In the same place new specimens will grow. With proper care, you can get 21-25 kg of boletus with 1 m².
For the supply of its products to retail outlets and the conclusion of an appropriate contract, the following documentation must be collected:
- conclusion of Rospotrebnadzor after laboratory tests confirming that the mushrooms do not contain harmful substances and are suitable for consumption;
- certificate of product quality issued by Rosstandart;
- regulatory documents on the storage and transportation of mushrooms and products from them.
In ceps, scientists have discovered substances that prevent the appearance of tumors. In olden times, the extract from them was used for frostbite.
Fresh porcini mushrooms can be sold in the following areas:
- restaurants, cafes and canteens;
- arrange delivery to the market, to shops and supermarkets;
- conclude a purchase and sale agreement with a processing plant.
Porcini mushrooms can be sold not only fresh, but in dried or canned form. The resulting crop will never be lost.
Growing mushrooms can be quite a profitable business.. Ceps are most in demand among the population due to their excellent taste. The prices for this product are quite large. For 1 kg of ceps give about 1 thousand rubles.
During fasting and on holidays, the cost of this product rises. Therefore, profitability is about 40%. This business pays off quickly - within 1-2 years. In addition, you can start with small volumes, drawing up a business plan and calculating costs, and then gradually increase production.
Did you know? In 1961, they found on the Moscow radio about a found boletus weighing more than 10 kg and a hat with a diameter of 58 cm
White mushroom is a welcome product at the table. Due to the great demand for boletus, the business of growing them will always flourish. The main thing is to use high-quality planting material and create all conditions for growing.