Where and when do porcini mushrooms appear
White mushroom, or real boletus, is considered the most delicious and valuable edible mushroom among other representatives of this kingdom. Today, detailed information on the appearance of the boletus, places of growth, collection rules, the benefits and harms of consumption will be considered.
The porcini mushroom is a representative of the class of agaricomycetes from the genus Borovikov, the family Polevye. In the people it is also called teddy bear, capercaillie, belevik, cow. It has a convex hat, which, as it grows, takes a flat shape, in diameter it can reach 30 cm.
The surface is usually smooth, sometimes has a small amount of wrinkleswhich during dry periods can crack. If the weather is cool and damp, then the hat is covered with a small layer of mucus, it becomes sticky to the touch.
Did you know? Mushrooms can be grown at home. To do this, it is worth acquiring mycelium or planting fresh hats that will let the young mycelium through spores.
The color of the mushroom is affected by the place of growth:
- in a pine forest takes a chocolate shade with a pink trim;
- among spruce trees, specimens of brown-coffee color with a greenish tint grow;
- in deciduous groves has a light nutty, yellowish hue.
Young specimens are distinguished by dense white flesh, old ones are slightly loose, creamy. When processing do not change color. The taste is very good, the aroma is light, it becomes more pronounced after heat treatment or drying.
The stem can grow up to 12 cm in height and up to 7 cm in diameter, takes the form of a barrel, old specimens are elongated, have a thickening at the base. The color of the legs varies from light brown to brown with a red tint. The narrow tubular layer located under the hat has a light yellow or saturated olive color, depending on age. The tubes are no more than 4 cm long, the pores are small, rounded.
Before you go picking mushrooms, you need to understand where it is better to go in order to collect more than one basket of valuable crops. Collection of mushrooms will be most effective in coniferous forests - spruce, pine with an admixture of oak or birch. You can also go to an oak or birch grove if the age of the plantations in these places exceeds 50 years.
The porcini mushroom prefers to grow on sandy and loamy soils, it will be a mistake to look for it in wet marshy areas. Mushrooms grow well and quickly in forests that are not dense with high weeds and shrubs, because they love light and sunlight.
Did you know? The giant boletus was discovered in 1961 in Russia: its weight was 10 kg, and the diameter of the cap exceeded 55 cm.
Depending on weather conditions, the growth sites of boletus can change. In damp, cool summer or autumn, the abundant fruiting of boletus can be seen far from the trees, on hills that are well lit by sunlight. In dry periods, mushrooms grow near plantations, in an area covered with moss or grass, which retain moisture and allow the mycelium to grow quickly.
Mushrooms grow on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Maximum yields are harvested in the middle lane of Europe, in North America and in Africa. Among Asian countries common in Japan and China.
When to pick porcini mushrooms
The active growth of boletus begins in July - August and September, if the weather conditions are favorable. Mushrooms appear especially good after short-term thunderstorms and warm night fogs in the summer, when moisture slightly irrigates the topsoil and maintains optimal humidity.In summer, boletus mushrooms ripen from 6 to 9 days, in autumn - from 9 to 15 days.
The best for collection are specimens with a hat diameter of 4 to 5 cm. Most likely, they are not yet affected by pests, have sufficient density. Larger and older specimens are less tasty, but they can also be collected for immediate consumption.
Important! After collection, the mushrooms must be processed within 10 hours - salted, laid for drying, cooked, preserved, otherwise they will lose most of the nutrients.
The basic rules for collecting porcini mushroom:
- the process of cutting the legs should be done carefully so that the mycelium is not damaged;
- if you don’t have a knife with you, you can tear off with your hands, performing scrolling movements;
- it is necessary to fold the harvested crop with the hats down - this way they will be better preserved during transportation (if individual specimens have a very high leg, then it is better to lay them on their side);
- Spoiled items should be trimmed immediately, sending only the suitable part to the basket.
You can go on a “silent hunt” in any weather. Even after frost, the mushrooms are suitable for consumption: if they are frozen, then after thawing they do not lose their taste and texture.
False white mushroom
Mustard, or bile fungus, which is inedible, is often confused with boletus. It belongs to tubular fungi from the genus Tilopil of the family Polevovye. Compared with ordinary boletus, it grows small in size, the diameter of the hat is not more than 10 cm, the surface is smooth, light brown or brown.
In the section, the flesh of the mustard is white, but after mechanical damage it acquires a pink hue. A distinctive feature of the leg of mustard is the presence of a dark brown mesh pattern on the surface. According to scientists, the flesh of the bile fungus contains toxic substances that can be absorbed into the blood of a person even during tactile contact, not to mention eating.
Health problems after eating mustard will appear during the first day: a person will feel weak or dizzy. Further, all symptoms disappear, but may return after a few weeks if a large amount of toxic product was eaten. The most severe consequences from the consumption of mustard are a violation of the liver and the development of cirrhosis.
Useful and harmful properties
Boletus contains a large amount of vitamin A, B1, C, D.
- In addition, boletus is rich in such substances:
- riboflavin - responsible for the healthy state of nails, hair and skin, contributes to the normal functioning of the thyroid gland;
- sulfur and polysaccharides - prevent oncological neoplasms;
- ether lecithin - cleans the walls of blood vessels from cholesterol;
- amino acid ergotionine - stimulates regenerative processes in cells;
- glucan - contributes to the formation of strong immunity, protecting the body from viruses, bacteria, fungi.
Due to its rich composition, boletus is used in the treatment of:
- metabolic disturbances;
- angina pectoris;
- skin ulcers;
Important! Cep has a lot of healthy protein, which is poorly absorbed by the body due to chitin in the composition. But if you take the dried product as food, then the digestibility index will increase to 80%.
- The harmful properties of boletus include:
- the tendency to absorb heavy metals and toxic substances when growing near roads and in industrial zones;
- the ability to cause a negative reaction of the body in the form of poisoning or gastrointestinal upset from eating when improperly dried or stored mushrooms;
- aggravation of the state of health when using the product by people who suffer from diseases of the liver and kidneys.
Mushrooms are heavy foods - they are digested by the body for a long time, so it is recommended to use them in a small amount in combination with vegetables. It is also not recommended to give this product to children under 12 years old, since the body is not yet able to digest the chitinous membrane, which is fraught with problems with the digestive system.
Thus, cep is not only tasty, but also a very healthy product that grows everywhere. Now collecting mushrooms is much simplified, as on the Internet you can find many places indicating the coordinates of the mushroom glades. In order not to confuse the edible boletus with a false porcini mushroom, it is recommended to carefully read the information in the article, having studied the main differences and features of growth.