Technology for growing oyster mushrooms for industrial purposes
One of the popular types of home agricultural business that allows you to earn a good income is growing oyster mushrooms for sale. This mushroom is unpretentious in care and gives a high yield, and also always has a demand among buyers due to its pleasant taste and versatility of use. A description of the technology for growing oyster mushrooms at home, possible ways of marketing finished products, as well as calculation of profitability and the rules for registering such a business, are described further in the article.
In order to successfully cultivate oyster mushrooms for sale and regularly collect a rich harvest, you need to prepare a special room with optimal conditions for the growth of mushrooms.
Of great importance is the quality of the initial planting material, as well as the proper preparation of the substrate for growing fruiting bodies. Having paid attention to all these factors, you can quickly get enough tasty and healthy mushrooms for sale.
One of the main factors affecting the profitable cultivation of oyster mushrooms for industrial purposes is the indoor microclimate, therefore, before purchasing the substrate and mycelium, it is necessary to equip the mushroom workshop with suitable conditions. At different stages of growth, oyster mushrooms need a certain temperature regime, lighting and humidity.
Did you know? In the process of vital activity, oyster mushroom secretes a special substance that paralyzes the nematode - nematotoxin.
The main requirements for the microclimate are listed below:
- after planting the mycelium and before germination of the mushrooms in the room should be absolutely dark (about 2-3 weeks) - during this period, the planting material takes root in the substrate;
- until the formation of the first fruiting bodies, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of +18 ... + 20 ° С - this stimulates the rapid germination of seeds;
- after emergence, the mushrooms need good lighting - it stimulates active growth;
- with the beginning of fruiting, the humidity in the room is maintained at least 80% - you need to equip a good ventilation system to prevent stagnation of dry air and the formation of dampness on the walls;
- during the active growth of fruiting bodies, the air temperature should be about +10 ... + 17 ° С;
- mushroom caps are recommended to be sprayed with water 2 times a day - this allows them to grow at a fast pace;
- the minimum air temperature even in winter should not fall below +5 ... + 8 ° С - for this, the room must be insulated, closing all the cracks in the walls, windows and doorways.
The volume and quality of the future crop largely depends on the planting material. Oyster mushroom mycelium is recommended to be bought only from specialized suppliers or from trusted private entrepreneurs, choosing the desired subspecies of these mushrooms.
Important! For each ton of substrate for growing oyster mushrooms, it is necessary to spend about 8 kg of mycelium.
Depending on which substrate the fruiting bodies will be grown, choose one of the options for seed material:
- cereal mycelium - it is recommended to use it when growing mushrooms on bags;
- planting material in the shape of sticks - It is used for seeding on stumps, because it is most well established on them.
The process of sowing mushrooms is very simple and is carried out in this way:
The same mycelium can be used for 3-4 growing cycles. In the future, it loses productivity, giving a low yield of mushrooms, so it should be replaced with fresh planting material. After the production of oyster mushrooms is established, the mycelium can not be bought, but collected by yourself.
In order for the purchased mushroom seeds to sprout safely, they must be sown in a suitable substrate.
For the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, its types are usually used:
- bags of straw or sawdust - The most common and cheapest option for year-round cultivation of mushrooms indoors;
- wooden stumps and decks - are established on the open seasonal dachas, giving a harvest only during the season;
- prepared mushroom blocks with mycelium - they are bought in a specialized store and installed in the room for growing oyster mushrooms.
A private entrepreneur, who begins to grow mushrooms for sale, is interested in receiving crops throughout the year, and also tries to minimize his expenses associated with establishing a mushroom business. Therefore, oyster mushrooms are most often grown in bags with husks from sunflower seeds, straw or sawdust.
Did you know? During World War II, German scientists used oyster mushroom as an ingredient for hearty nutrition of German soldiers.
Before laying the mycelium, it is necessary to properly prepare the substrate by performing the following steps:
- It is good to moisten the mixture intended for growing oyster mushrooms by dropping it in a container with clean water. At the same time, wooden decks and stumps are soaked in water for 2-3 days.
- If you grow mushrooms in bags with straw or sawdust, then you need to grind the filler: it will be more convenient to fold it.
- Boil the mixture to fill the bags in a pot of water for 40 minutes.
- Fold the substrate onto a sieve to drain excess liquid. Cool it to a temperature of + 20 ° C.
After performing the above steps, you can proceed to the direct tab of the seed material.
To profit from growing oyster mushrooms at home, you need to analyze the market. Due to the good taste and healthy composition, these mushrooms are always in demand among buyers, and you can sell them both in bulk and in small volumes at retail.
Did you know? In New Zealand, there is a ban on the import of oyster oyster mushrooms - it is believed that it can harm the local flora.
The main ways of implementing oyster mushrooms are as follows:
- sale in the grocery market - you can carry it out independently or hire sellers by opening several outlets for direct transfer of goods to the consumer;
- delivery to restaurants, cafes - oyster mushrooms are often used to prepare various dishes, so many institutions are ready to purchase mushrooms in bulk from regular and reliable suppliers;
- sales through stores - It is used mainly by large producers of oyster mushrooms, because retail chains prefer to purchase mushrooms in large quantities;
- sale of raw materials to industrial enterprisesusing it for processing (creation of semi-finished products, mushroom seasonings, etc.).
Number of attachments
Planning your own oyster mushroom growing business can begin even with minimal capital available. Mushrooms can grow even in a small room, giving small quantities of goods for retail sale on the market.
A novice entrepreneur can organize mushroom growing in the basement, spending about 5,000 rubles for the purchase of such components:
- 10 plastic bags for growing mushrooms (volume 10-12 kg) - 100 rubles;
- 1 ton of substrate (straw, sawdust, husk from sunflower seeds, corn stalks) - about 2,000 rubles;
- 8 kg of mycelium - about 500 rubles;
- wooden blocks for the manufacture of small racks for the convenient placement of bags with oyster mushrooms - about 2,000 rubles.
After receiving the first profit and the appearance of regular customers, you can build a larger room, purchase an additional amount of planting material and bags, or grow oyster mushrooms in ready-made mushroom briquettes.To increase productivity in the future, additional equipment is also installed: automated ventilation systems, heaters and humidifiers. For the purpose of longer storage of finished products, refrigerators are purchased.
Important! The profitability of the oyster mushroom growing business can reach 80%, and the payback period of expenses is on average 9–10 months.
If you follow the correct growing technology, you can get a good crop of oyster mushrooms even with minimal cash costs. About 3-4 kg of fruiting bodies are collected from each bag at a time, and the average price of the product is 130 rubles / kg. Even in a small home basement, you can place a dozen of these bags, and in larger rooms this amount increases to several tens or even hundreds.
The amount of net profit obtained from a medium-sized mushroom farm can reach 50,000 rubles. Compared to the amount of investments, the income is quite high, which makes the business of growing oyster mushrooms for sale highly profitable.
Registration and documents
In order for the oyster mushroom growing business to be legal for sale, you must officially register it. This will allow the entrepreneur not only to sell his goods in the vegetable market, but also to cooperate with wholesale buyers, supplying mushrooms to shops, restaurants and cafes.
For registration of an individual entrepreneur (IP), the following documents will be required:
- copy of identification number;
- check on payment of state duty;
- application for registration of IP.
Growing oyster mushrooms for sale also implies the payment of a tax, which usually amounts to 6% of the income (simplified taxation system). For the sale of oyster mushrooms, additional documents must also be issued to guarantee the quality of the mushrooms sold.
- declaration of conformity with GOST, showing the conformity of products to legally established standards of quality and safety;
- phytosanitary certification confirming the compliance of mushrooms with the sanitary norms established by law;
- radiology protocol containing information on the presence in the fruiting bodies of radioactive elements and heavy metals.
Important! When registering a mushroom growing business, an entrepreneur indicates mushroom and truffle farming as a type of activity (subclause 01.13.6 of OKVED).
The cultivation of oyster mushrooms can be considered as a business, if you strictly follow the rules for sowing and caring for growing fruiting bodies, as well as find a market for your products. Using the information presented in the article, you can independently calculate the profitability of this type of agricultural activity, draw up a development plan, draw up all the necessary documents and earn good profit even at low cash costs.