Maslyata: period and places of growth
Oil mushrooms are deservedly considered one of the most popular mushrooms in Russia and neighboring countries of the same climatic zone. They are characterized by good taste properties, so many housewives collect them for frying, stewing, drying or freezing. Read further in the article what exactly these mushrooms are remarkable for, where and when they grow, how to properly harvest the oil.
The butterdish (in Latin “Suillus luteus”, that is, “common butterdish”) is a representative of the Boletovs family, which got its name due to the oily, slippery and wet surface of the hat. Synonymous names are also due to this feature: butterfish, oily mushroom. To date, there are dozens of types of oils, which differ from each other mainly in the size and color of the hat: from milk to deep brown.
The main distinguishing feature of the nipple is a powerful ring-cover, located under his hat (for young representatives, it connects to the edge of the hymenophore). The top of the hat usually has a rusty, chestnut or dark olive hue, and its diameter varies between 4-10 cm.The shape of the cap is conical or funnel-shaped (mainly in older specimens), with a smooth and mucous surface. Below it consists of tiny circular pore tubes, which in the initial stages of the development of the fungus are light yellow in color, and then mature and become dark yellow. Their depth is on average 3–7 mm.
The oily stalk is cylindrical in shape, of medium size with a diameter of 1–3.5 cm. It reaches a height of 4–10 cm. The color of its surface can vary from white (with a darker bottom) to a shade that completely matches the color of the surface of the hat. In some cases, a whitish liquid can be released from the pores of the fungus, which solidifies with drops on the leg. In some varieties of the Boletovs family, scraps of the coverlet remain at the leg, connecting the leg and the edges of the cap at a young age (for example, in the common oiler).
Where to collect
Oilfishes are found not only in Russia, but also in Europe, Asia, North America, and some species are even known to the people of Africa and Australia. Often, mushrooms are found in coniferous forests, next to pine and spruce trees.Dark areas of the forest are not the best place for butterflies: they choose places on the edges of the forest, on forest paths, on paths along the roads and in thickets of coniferous young animals.
On the territory of mixed forests, mainly late oleagins grow (bear fruit in October), and early conifers can be found in conifers at the end of June. It is better to start the search at the very edge of the forest, and then gradually go inside the spruce plantations, but not delving into them (remember the photophilous fungus).
Video: Collecting oil
When they grow
Based on the variety of oils growing in a particular area, the harvest of mushrooms lasts from June to October, but it is best to focus on the last summer month or early autumn. In especially fruitful years, up to seven “waves” may appear in one and the same place, and the termination of fruiting occurs when the cooling starts at -5 ° C.
Important! By It is worth collecting young butterflies, the cap of which does not exceed 2–4 cm in diameter. Firstly, they are much tastier, and secondly, it is easier to cook them, because you do not need to cut them into pieces.
As soon as the mushroom season begins (the butterflies grow best in summer or early autumn), each mushroom picker tries to choose the most productive places where they can appear during the entire harvest season. Of course, mushrooms can grow in the same place for many years, but in order to provide yourself with a crop, you need to know about some rules:
- Pay attention to the near-trunk zone of young pines on the sunny side.
- You shouldn’t look for mushrooms near the highway or on the territory of industrial facilities, since they probably already managed to accumulate a large amount of toxins.
- If the season has just begun, and the mass emergence of mushrooms has not yet been observed, it is necessary to rake the top layer of grass and soil with a stick.
- If you managed to find one oiler, then there are other relatives next to it, because these mushrooms grow in large groups.
- Having noticed a suitable specimen, one cannot uproot it. In order not to damage the mycelium, just gently cut the mushroom with a knife. Moreover, one can immediately determine whether it is wormy or not.
- In order to keep your hands clean when collecting oil (the skin quickly darkens when interacting with oil, it is worthwhile to wear gloves before going on a trip).
Harvested mushrooms can be soaked in water, which will facilitate the removal of the skin from the hat. This pretreatment step is only relevant if you intend to salt, pickle, fry or cook the crop. For further drying (especially relevant in summer), you do not need to wash the mushrooms, you just need to clean their surface with a hard brush from forest debris. After that, they are hung out to dry on a strong yarn in whole or in the form of thin plates.
Going for edible oils, avoid their inedible counterparts. One of them is a yellow-brown oiler, the flesh of which turns blue after breaking.
The benefits to the human body
Mushrooms contain a huge supply of nutrients, so sometimes they even begin to grow at home. In folk medicine lotions based on mushroom infusions and decoctions are recommended for dermatological problems in the early stages.
- Home growing butter is also very useful, because specimens grown in ecologically clean places can have the following positive effect on the body:
- stimulate immunity due to the antibiotic substances contained in the cap of the fungus;
- fight infectious ailments;
- remove uric acid from the body (especially relevant in the treatment of gout);
- normalize hormonal levels (due to the content of lecithin);
- increase hemoglobin in the blood;
- improve the condition and performance of the thyroid gland;
- normalize the activity of the nervous system, while improving the mood and emotional state of a person;
- eliminate headache and even migraine;
- participate in the process of regeneration of liver cells;
- increase potency in men;
- accelerate recovery from injuries and surgical interventions.
- prevent the development of cardiovascular ailments and diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
Few will grow oil at home, but it is not difficult to assemble them in the natural environment of growth. The main thing is not to miss the deadlines in summer and autumn, as well as decide in advance where it is better to go for mushroom delicacy. Observing the general rules of "silent hunting" and clearly following all the requirements for cooking butter, you can harvest a good crop.