Description of butter: appearance, how to cook them, the benefits and harms of these mushrooms
The main rule of each mushroom picker is not to take in the basket those types of forest gifts in which they are not sure. Fortunately, there are mushrooms that are recognized at a glance. In the forest glades of Russian forests, in summer and autumn you can find many mushrooms with an oily glossy hat. "Hunters" for mushrooms recognize them immediately - it's oily.
Butterflies - Edible Mushrooms: they can be found not only in Russia and neighboring countries, but also in the forests of European countries, America, Australia, and sometimes even in Africa. It was for his oil hat that he got this name.
Did you know? Belarusians call this mushroom delicacy "butter", Ukrainians call it "butter", and the Germans called it - buterpilts, that is, again, "butter mushroom".
Since the butter has about 45 species, all of them can differ from each other in the color of the hat, the height and diameter of the legs, the preferred place of growth. Butterflies grow in “families”; single mushrooms are not common.
What does it look like
The butterdish gives itself out as a mucous sticky hat.
It looks oily and can have different shades:
- reddish brown;
- brown chocolate;
- chestnut red.
The diameter of the hat is usually from 4 to 10 cm, but in a large mushroom it can reach up to 15 cm. The pores under the hat are very small, their depth is 2-6 mm. The leg is cylindrical in shape with a white film ring (there isn’t such a ring on a grease fitting) it differs from the cap in color - it is much lighter.
The leg is solid and fibrous, up to 14 cm high. The pores of the tubes are not large, round in shape. Thick flesh of the mushroom from white to yellow. The place of cut can change color, acquire a blue or red tint.
Where is growing
Most oil can be found in the forest under coniferous trees. (pine, spruce, cedar). Less commonly, you will see a mushroom growing under birches or oaks. Oilfans love places that are well warmed up by the sun - they are easy to meet at the edge of the forest, a clearing, and you can often see them at the side of forest roads.
The geography of growth is great: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, almost all of Europe - Estonia, Germany, Spain, Finland, etc. Maslata grow in China, Japan, America, and even New Zealand.
Edible or not
Since there are many varieties of butterfish, mushroom pickers are interested in the question of whether there are dangerous or simply inedible ones among them. In fact poisonous oils do not exist, but their counterparts are most often called conditionally edible mushrooms. - you can eat them only by observing special techniques and methods of preparation.
Important! Up to 6 years old children not allowed treat with mushrooms.
Varieties and doubles
On the territory of the Russian Federation you can find a large number of different types of oils.
The most common among mushroom pickers are:
- Grain oiler - The most famous and common edible mushroom. Hat of a young specimen from 2 cm, adult to 20 cm, has a rounded shape, mucous. Fleshy flesh and firm leg are suitable for pickling, drying, salting. From this butterdish you can make soup, sauce, etc. due to its good taste. Leg without ring, 6-8 cm. Mycorrhiza (symbiosis of mycelium and roots) forms with pine trees.
- Grease fitting gray attracts mushroom pickers with a pleasant taste and dense pulp. The small leg has a yellow ring and reaches a length of 4–8 cm. The collection period falls from July to October.
- Bellini like for the delicate taste and pronounced mushroom smell. The hat can reach up to 15 cm in diameter; she has no gloss. The leg is quite short, up to 6 cm, has no ring.
- Clinton's Oiler (belted or chestnut), grows in deciduous forests. The surface of the hat is glossy, it is brown with a red tint, dark chestnut. The leg is high, up to 12 cm, has a ring. The pulp is fleshy, taste is medium, the smell is slightly pronounced.
- Swamp Oiler or yellowishhas a straw or ocher hat. The surface is sticky. The leg has a ring, tall and thin. When cut, the flesh turns red.
- Larch oiler has a hat from 3 to 14 cm. Its surface is sticky. The peel on a smooth hat is difficult to remove. The pulp does not change color on the cut, it is yellow in color with a lemon tint, orange and brownish. Leg up to 12 cm, it is flat or curved. Suitable for pickling, pickling, cooking soups, sauces.
Doppelgängers (conditionally edible mushrooms) should be known in the “face”, because outwardly they are very suitable for the description of edible oils.
This knowledge is necessary for the correct method of preparation:
- Pepper mushroom very similar to a butterdish, but it does not have a characteristic ring on a leg. Also, this species has a reddish color of the spongy layer. Pepper mushroom is classified as conditionally edible, because it has a sharpness in taste, therefore, such an instance is often used only as a mushroom seasoning.
- Lubricator white. The hat is whitish, covered with mucus after rain. The leg is quite long (sometimes curved), up to 10 cm, no ring. Cooking should be done immediately after collection, because mushrooms spoil very quickly.
- Wet spruce. In appearance, a young mushroom can be easily confused with an oiler, however, turning it over and looking under a hat, it will immediately become clear that this is a double mushroom. The hat on the back is not tubular, but lamellar, and instead of a beautiful shine on it is thick mucus. A distinctive feature of this specimen is that it stains the neighboring mushrooms lying in the basket in a lilac color.
Amateur breeding of your favorite mushrooms can be established, but there must be suitable conditions for this. If at least a few coniferous trees are present in the summer cottage, then growing oilseeds is likely to produce a result, that is, they can form mycorrhiza only if these conditions are met.
Did you know? The global market for mushroom industry in 2005 was estimated at more than $ 45 billion. Now this figure has increased by almost 10%.
Next, you need to buy mushroom mycelium, which was obtained in the laboratory, or independently collect spores of adult mushrooms in the forest. Then you will need to prepare the optimal soil (with humus). Carry out the sowing of the mycelium and produce care (first of all, make sure that the soil is not dry).
Oil mushrooms are considered mushrooms that can be beneficial to human health.
- They can help in solving various problems:
- get rid of pathogenic bacteria;
- help in the fight against gout;
- help to remove salts;
- able to help remove uric acid;
- lecithin in oils provides protection of cell membranes from damage;
- the protein contained in mushrooms will help to fill in the missing amount of protein needed by people who refuse to eat meat products.
Oil cans are great for making soups, sauces and roasts. They are pickled, boiled, fried, stewed, dried and salted. Butter is used to make salads, some types are used as mushroom seasoning.
Important! Gastroenterologists recommend eating mushrooms no more than 2 times a week, in a total of 300 g.
Currently, oil is used in medicine to reduce pain, solve problems in the work of some organs:
- To get rid of joint pain with arthritis and arthrosis, an alcohol tincture is prepared on the basis of mushrooms.
- Treatment of gout involves not only the adoption of tinctures, but the use of butter in any form.
- Mushroom powder helps relieve headaches during migraines.
- Skin inflamed during psoriasis is lubricated with a specially prepared liquid based on mushrooms.
- Mushroom powder is used in the manufacture of face masks.
People with digestive problems should not abuse the mushrooms. Despite the fact that they have few calories, butter is poorly digested. The risk group includes people with liver, pancreas and allergies.
Common oleagins, like other edible mushrooms, can cause intoxication if they are collected near roads, factories, etc. The reason lies in their ability to absorb and accumulate heavy metals.
So, if you want to collect a large amount of oil, it is best to go to a pine or fir forest. First, you should study their varieties, so as not to pass by. During heat treatment, the oil must be observed all the time periods of cooking. It is equally important to eat normal mushrooms, so as not to harm health.