The main types of chanterelles
Chanterelles are appreciated by people because of their high taste, nutritional and beneficial properties for many millennia. Today, in many countries they are considered delicacies. In nature, there are several species of these representatives of the mushroom kingdom. Their description and photos can be found below.
Chanterelles (lat. Cantharellus) are called several types of mushrooms, united in one genus. Their characteristic feature is that there is no border between their hats and legs, they seem to create a single whole. The fruit body is colored in different shades of yellow, orange, red. The length and thickness of the leg are small, at the bottom this part is narrowed.
The hat is not too large, measures 2–12 cm across. Often you can find specimens in which this part with wavy edges is irregular in shape. Depending on the type and age, it can be convex or concave. In mature mushrooms, it has the shape of a funnel. Top hat is smooth, matte.
The pulp is characterized by density and meatiness.. It is white in color with yellow edges. Her taste is sour, the smell is faint, similar to that emitted by dried fruits or roots. If the fruit body is broken and squeezed, the flesh will change color to reddish or bluish.
Under the hat there are wavy folds or thick veins. They capture most of the legs.
This mushroom has no covers. Chanterelles are common in forests where conifers and deciduous trees grow. They form mycorrhiza with many plants. Most of the representatives of the genus grow on the earth. Some specimens prefer a growth environment such as moss.
Most species of fungi belonging to the described genus are valuable edible. They can be eaten without fear, they do not require pre-treatment in the form of soaking and cooking. Such chanterelles are suitable for any cooking.
Did you know? In the chanterelles, pests do not start, because they contain a quinomannose substance that repels them.
Another name for this species is Cockerel.
It can be recognized by the following basic external characteristics:
- slightly convex yellow or orange-yellow hat with a diameter of 2 to 10 cm with a wavy edge;
- a leg in one color scale with a hat - 4–7 cm long and 1–4 cm thick;
- dense yellow or orange pulp with a fruit smell and sour taste.
In adulthood, the mushroom cap takes the form of a funnel. Under it are folded pseudoplates painted in the same tone as the upper part of the chanterelle. They cover a small part of the leg. This species grows in different forests.
You can meet him from June to October. He forms mycorrhiza with conifers, oak, and beech. As a rule, representatives of the common species grow in groups. The mushroom has valuable taste. Suitable for all types of heat treatment, preservation and drying.
Did you know? The Big Sur Chanterelle Festival & amp; Cook-Off, during which cooks compete in the preparation of chanterelles according to the most delicious and original recipe.
This variety has another name - funnel chanterelle. In its representatives, the upper part resembles a funnel. Its dimensions are 2–6 cm across. The edges are bent down. Coloring can be of various tones - from brownish to gray-yellow. The surface is dotted with dark-colored scales with a velvety structure.
The pulp is white in color, characterized by density and elasticity. The taste is not pronounced. There is no acuity in it, but bitterness may be present. The smell is poorly perceived.The leg reaches a height of 3–8 cm and a thickness of 3–8 mm. In shape, it resembles a cylinder. May be squeezed on the sides. Painted yellow. Gymenophore in the form of folds, yellow or bluish-gray.
In nature, the fungus grows in forests with conifers, forming mycorrhiza with them.. In addition to land, it can grow on stumps and in moss. Most often grows in numerous groups. Mushrooms of this species can form rows or rings. The fruiting period is September - December.
The chanterelle is classified as an edible specimen. Since the flesh is stiff, it is recommended to boil it first. This type is suitable for making sauces and drying.
This species is very rare.. It grows in deciduous forests of southeastern Europe. The fruiting period is in July - October. You can find out the velvety look by a small hat, which reaches 4–5 cm across.
In young representatives of the species, the upper part is convex, in mature - funnel-shaped. It is painted in red and orange tones. The edges of the hat are wavy, curly.
The stalk is low, grows up to 2–4 cm. It reaches a thickness of 1 cm. It is cylindrical in shape and narrowed downward. The pulp is characterized by tenderness, pleasant smell, taste with a slight sourness. In the upper part it is colored in orange, in the lower - in white or light yellow.
Under the hat are dense plates that fall on the leg. They branch and intertwine using veins
. At a young age, the hymenophore is painted in the same tone as the upper part. In mature mushrooms, it is gray-yellow. In cooking, this type is used for universal purposes - it is boiled, fried, marinated and dried.
Important! Chanterelles are not recommended for dinner, as they greatly strain the digestive tract.
Fox is pale
Another rare species found mainly in deciduous forests from June to September. Its representatives prefer nutritious soils. The upper part of the pale chanterelle at a young age is flat, bent down.
In mature mushrooms, it is concave in the form of a funnel with wavy edges. Under it are pseudoplates matching the color of the hat - white or fawn yellow. Blurry spots are located on the surface of the hat.
The leg is white-yellow. It can be 2–5 cm in height, or 5–15 mm in thickness. The upper part of the leg is like a mace, the lower part is like a cone narrowed downwards. The inner part of the fungus is characterized by density, good taste characteristics.
Pale fox can also be found under the names light, white. It is considered an edible mushroom of the second category. In taste and useful properties, it is not much inferior to the ordinary form.
The appearance of this representative of the mushroom kingdom is unremarkable. The upper part in size reaches 1-15 cm in diameter. In the center, it has a recess. The edges are bent, wavy, often torn.
Because of this structure of the hat, the gray fox got another name - the tortuous funnel. The surface of the upper part is painted in gray or black. Under the hat there are ash-colored plates.
The upper part is integral with a curved and hollow leg. Its height does not exceed 8 cm, thickness - 1.5 cm. The lower part often completely goes underground. Her color is the same as the hat. In mature mushrooms, it is black. The pulp is characterized by elasticity, tenderness, tart spicy taste. In color, it can be from light to dark shades of gray.
Representatives of this species grow in forests with deciduous and coniferous species. They prefer to grow in numerous colonies. Fruiting occurs in late July, and ends in early October. The nutritional value of this fungus has not been studied. It can be used in any form.
This species is common in the forests of North America.. Most often forms mycorrhiza with oak.It has a small hat, which reaches 1–4 cm across. In young specimens it is convex, in old specimens it is concave with wavy edges. The surface is painted red. As the mushroom grows older, it acquires a pink hue.
The foot is small, reaches a height of 1–4 cm, and a thickness of no more than 1 cm. It resembles a cylinder in shape, red or pink in color. Under the upper part there is a hymenophore in the form of folds - it descends on the leg, painted in pink. The pulp has a fleshy fibrous structure. The fruiting time of the fungus falls in the autumn.
There are no poisonous specimens among the chanterelles. However, inedible doubles and fungi containing substances hazardous to humans can be masked as representatives of this genus. The use of such inedible species as the fox, false, mottled, does not entail serious danger to humans.
They simply do not contain valuable elements, are tasteless or bitter, and in some people they can cause indigestion. Of the poisonous mushrooms, some species of the Omphaloth genus are similar to the fox. Using them, a person can be poisoned.
Fox motley, or homfus scaly - This is an unusual in appearance mushroom. Its fruit body is like a vase, it reaches a height of 6-14 cm and a diameter of 4-12 cm. The upper part resembles a bowl, it can be strongly pressed. Because of this feature, one can often hear that this mushroom is called a “pipe mushroom” or “jug”.
In young mushrooms, the surface of the cap is moist, strewn with small scales, and has a wavy edge. By color, it can be orange with a red or brown tint. There are specimens with yellow spots and blurry zones.
On the bottom of the mushroom there are numerous folds and wrinkles. In young representatives, they are cream, in mature ones, they are gray-brown. The leg grows to a maximum of 10 cm. In shape, it resembles a cone narrowed downwards. Her color is creamy or yellowish.
The structure of the pulp is fibrous, painted white. She has a faint odor, a sweet taste with sourness. The mushroom grows in coniferous and mixed forests. Fruits from mid-summer to mid-autumn. Since this species is considered inedible, it is not suitable for food - it can cause digestive disorders due to the content of toxins.
The false species is very similar to the ordinary chanterelle. Inexperienced mushroom pickers can easily confuse them.
However, the double has a number of differences:
- Their hats have even edges and a rough surface.
- The pulp gives off a rotten odor, does not change color when pressed.
- It grows alone on the trunks of old trees and stumps.
- The film is easily removed from the surface.
- The leg is thin and hollow.
False chanterelles have a flat, and then funnel-shaped upper part of orange or yellow. Under it are often placed plates that strongly descend to the leg. They have a bright orange color. The leg does not exceed 5 cm in length. It reaches 1 cm in width.
May be flat or curved. Her pulp is fibrous, like cotton wool. Painted in the same tone as the hat. The base is black. The pulp of the fruiting body is white or yellow. Has a sweetish aroma. Places of growth of representatives of the false species - forests with conifers and deciduous species. The fruiting season is summer and autumn.
Data on the edible characteristics of this fungus are contradictory.
In some countries it is considered edible, but with low taste. In Russia, in various sources it is classified as conditionally edible or inedible. There is evidence that in some people, a false fox can cause food poisoning.
Important! For long-term storage of chanterelles, a method such as freezing is not suitable, because after defrosting they begin to bitter.
So, the genus of chanterelles includes many varieties, most of which have high taste.These mushrooms are valued in cooking and are often used for cooking delicious dishes.