Description of mushroom dupe, features of application in cooking and medicine
The mushroom is often called Dubovik. It is found in deciduous forests near oaks, hence the name. Outwardly, it is very similar to boletus, but has a number of features. In more detail about it - further.
For a more accurate identification of the fungus, acquaintance with it must begin with a description of its external data.
What does it look like
The most attractive part of any mushroom is its hat. In a cudgel, it can be up to 6–22 cm in diameter. Its color varies from light brown to brick. Usually, the older the mushroom, the darker it can be, even almost black. If you squeeze it, then dark spots appear on the spot. The shape of the cap is in the form of a hemisphere, but it can also be extended. To the touch - velvety. If it rains or cloudy weather sets, then it becomes sticky and slippery.
Did you know? Spores of fungi do not lose their ability to germinate even after a decade.
Video: Mushroom Dubovyk
Where is growing
Common Dubovik can be found in oak, mixed, deciduous forests, groves. Enters a symbiosis with the root system of oaks, beech, old birches and lindens. Such an interaction is not parasitic, but beneficial. The mushroom receives sugar from the roots and gives the plant liquid, solutions of substances that it draws from the ground. Prefers to grow in sunny areas with limestone soil. It can be found in the period from May to September in the European part of Russia, except for the north, in the southern and western regions of Siberia, in the south of the Far East.
Edible or not
The duvet is suitable for human consumption. It can be eaten dried or pickled. But before cooking it must be soaked and boiled, changing water several times. Soak is necessary due to the fact that the mushroom contains toxic substances in a small dose.
Varieties and doubles
There are three types of duvet: ordinary, speckled oak, Kele oak. The ordinary man in question has no varieties, as well as doubles. But it can almost look like speckled, which has doubles: a satanic mushroom, yellow boletus, olive-brown oak.
This is a poisonous species of oak. He has a hemispherical or rounded-pillow-shaped, open hat. It is covered with smooth or velvety dry skin, which can be with white, gray, dirty gray, olive gray shades. Its pulp is white or yellow and when interacting with air it does not change much color to red or blue. Old and overgrown fruit bodies have a very unpleasant and clearly noticeable smell. The leg is egg-shaped or spherical, similar to a barrel, tapering up.
Identifywhere edible, and where poisonous (false) is possible according to the following characteristics of the latter:
- the hat is dirty yellow;
- in the air the flesh turns red and then brightens;
- it smells bad;
- middle of leg in dark red mesh with yellowish border.
Did you know? There are luminous mushrooms. Their 68 species. Basically, they grow in Japan and glow in the dark with green light.
Video: How to distinguish an oak tree from a satanic mushroom
Those who are too lazy to go to the forest for mushrooms can grow them on their own. Special knowledge and skills in this matter are not needed. It is enough to prepare ordinary beds, mixing the soil with horse manure, clay, chernozem, leaves and sawdust. Seeds are harvested in the forest. It is necessary to cut off the hats of young duvet.
They need to be laid out on paper and left for 48 hours. The mycelium will be ready. The resulting seeds are placed in the soil and sprinkled with leaves. Watering is carried out only in heat and drought. If you properly care for the beds, with 1 m² of area you can get about 100 fresh mushrooms.
The benefits of the oak tree are directly related to its composition. It contains a lot of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. There are also amino acids necessary for our body.
- Due to this, it has such a beneficial effect:
- destroys bacteria, eliminates nausea, dizziness, weakness;
- improves heart function;
- cleanses the body of toxins, lowers cholesterol;
- stimulates the immune system;
- slows down the aging process;
- improves the functioning of the nervous system;
- activates the healing process of wounds, improves the condition of the skin;
- increases potency, improves libido;
- assists in the fight against toxins, metal salts and other harmful compounds;
- stimulates the thyroid gland.
Common Dubovik refers to conditionally edible mushrooms, that is, those that are suitable for use only if they are properly cooked. They can not be eaten raw and undercooked. You can also not eat old and stale specimens. This will cause indigestion, vomiting, fever, and can lead to more serious problems.
Important! It is not recommended to use the duvet with alcohol.
If you follow all the rules for cooking, then an ordinary oak tree can be boiled, canned, fried, cooked from it sauces. It is good to include it in recipes for cooking dishes from vegetables, rice, buckwheat, fried potatoes. Before any method of cooking, you must first boil the mushrooms for 15 minutes, drain the water, and then continue processing in the desired way.
As a medicine, the dupe is not used in official and alternative medicine. But, nevertheless, it has some healing properties. From it, the antibiotic boletol is obtained, capable of suppressing pathogenic microorganisms. Amino acids contained in the cudgel improve memory, inhibit the development of atherosclerosis.
In the old days, tinctures were prepared from the duvet. They were used to combat overwork, nervous breakdowns.
The main danger of the fungus is the presence of a small amount of toxic substances in it. Serious poisoning can occur without proper heat treatment. Dubovik is best consumed in the daytime, as eaten in the morning or evening, it can lead to a feeling of heaviness in the stomach.
- In addition, there are contraindications to its use:
- problems with the digestive tract, gall bladder;
- renal ailments.
The dupe is a conditionally edible mushroom. It contains many useful substances, so it is advisable to introduce it into the daily diet. But at the same time, you need to remember about safety measures and contraindications.