Boletus white: where and when it grows, properties
Among all kinds of mushroom abundance, white boletus occupies a special place among lovers of quiet hunting. It has a fairly rich and refined taste and a whole complex of nutrients. However, even today, many mushroom pickers have not yet appreciated the properties and characteristics of these porcini mushrooms. The article describes in detail the characteristics of the fungus, gives its photo and describes how it can be useful to humans.
The biological description of the fungus
White boletus is a characteristic representative of the Boletovy family, the genus Lekcinum. According to the nutritional properties, representatives of these fungi belong to the 2 category. This means that the mushroom is recognized as completely safe for the human body and can be used for preparing any culinary dishes. However, the amount of proteins and other nutrients in its composition is somewhat inferior to more valuable champignons, porcini mushroom, etc.The morphological features of the boletus are typical: it is a small mushroom up to 20 cm high. The leg is fleshy, high (up to 15 cm), with a diameter of not more than 4 cm, club-shaped. It is slightly thinned in the upper part and slightly thickens towards the mycelium zone. The skin is whitish, covered with small scaly formations of fibrous structure, gray or brown.
Did you know? White boletus was first described by the legendary Soviet scientist-mycologist Boris Vasilkov. This happened in the first half of the twentieth century, in one of the expeditions of a scientist to study the fungi of the Arctic and adjacent zones. The systematization of the body was carried out in 1960, by the Scottish scientist Roy Watling.
The average diameter of the cap is 15 cm, but specimens with 25 cm are also found. Its shape is convex, the skin is dry, felt, without any surface formations. The hue of the hat is light, pale white, with light pink tones, but sometimes it can be light brown or pale green. As it ripens, the color changes, the main shade acquires saturated yellow tones.
The hymenophore of a hat of a tubular type, yellow or white, as it ripens, it changes to grayish or brown. The pulp is elastic and fleshy. On a vertical cut, a fresh mushroom is predominantly white in color, however, the leg can have a hue of blue-green tones. The color of the tissues after cutting changes instantly, the light flesh becomes blue, and then purple.
Modern mycology knows many varieties, the so-called false boletus. Despite almost identical morphological characteristics, their taste characteristics are different, and some species are completely unsuitable for consumption or poisonous. Most often, inexperienced mushroom pickers confuse “aspen albino” with mustard (bile fungus). You can distinguish it thanks to the characteristic beige shade of the peel of the hat and legs.
Did you know? Mushrooms are one of the oldest living things on the planet. They lived on Earth 900 million years ago and are the first eukaryotic organisms.
In addition, the mustard on the cut turns pink or acquires light red hues, while the boletus becomes dark blue. In addition, the boletus is often confused with the more famous cep. Distinguishing this variety of mushroom is quite simple, it has a rich brown hat with a reddish tint. Also, in “whites”, the cut flesh does not change color, even after a long time, and the leg is more massive.
Where and at what time it grows
Boletus is a classic productive mushroom, the germination of which begins in June.The deadline for autumn harvesting is observed in the middle or end of September. This organism creates the most effective symbioses on the site of mixed forests, which is why it can most often be found en masse in pine-spruce or pine-deciduous forests. The most optimal climatic zone for this is considered to be the territory of the Murmansk and Penza region of Russia, many aspen mushrooms can be found in the Republic of Komi, Chuvashia and Mari El.
Important! To maintain a delicate shade of mushroom pulp during cooking, the chopped boletus should be soaked for several minutes in a 0.5% citric acid solution.
Also, the view can be found in parts of the Moscow, Leningrad and Arkhangelsk regions, the Khanty-Mansiysk and Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, near Lake Baikal. Sometimes the species is also found in Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Western Europe and North America, however, such populations are found only in remote forest regions.
The use of white boletus
Use this species as well as other edible varieties of boletus. Young specimens are subjected to stewing, frying and boiling, and also canned, including in combination with all kinds of vegetables. Such a side dish can perfectly complement almost any dish.Ripe mushrooms are not of particular culinary value, but they are the best ingredient for preparing all kinds of medicinal decoctions, infusions, as well as dry raw materials for the winter.
Taste qualities, medicinal properties
White boletus is distinguished by its unique mushroom taste and aroma, which, as it cooks, becomes more delicate and refined. After processing, the pulp loses its density, however, even after prolonged cooking, its integrity and meatiness is preserved. This allows you to use dishes based on boletus for any festive table. The appearance and the whole set of properties important for health differ.
- The combination of vitamins, minerals, as well as all kinds of biologically active substances accumulated in the hat and leg, makes it possible:
- activate the natural processes of blood purification;
- lower blood cholesterol;
- eliminate all kinds of toxic deposits from organs and tissues;
- improve immunity;
- restore healthy tissue regeneration;
- reduce the excitability of the nervous system;
- normalize the balance of intestinal microflora.
Benefits and possible damage to the human body
Periodic consumption of mushroom products makes it possible to have a powerful effect on all health in general.
- This helps to have a beneficial effect on the body against:
- pallor of the skin caused by metabolic disorders;
- immunodeficiency pathologies;
- all kinds of disorders that cause depression and nervous tension.
The appearance is also effective as an auxiliary tool for preventing and eliminating the consequences of oncological formations. Its active components make it possible to activate the natural regenerative properties, as well as normalize the work of the affected organ and related systems. However, there is a white boletus and some contraindications.
Important! Mushrooms are contraindicated in children under 3 years of age, even the edible boletus can burden the work of the unformed gastrointestinal tract, and also cause poisoning.
First of all, all kinds of dishes based on it and extracts are prohibited in case of any allergic reactions to mushrooms. It is not recommended to use it in excessive amounts for any disease of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as for pregnant and elderly. It can lead to all kinds of digestive disorders, and also cause the activation of chronic ailments.
Today, scientists know a huge number of all kinds of scientific facts about mushrooms, but most of them are exclusively general in nature.
Despite this, white boletus has its own interesting features, which include the following:
- The “white” look got its additional name due to the shade of the hat, which resembles the shade of fading leaves.
- For residents of North America, the mushroom is a national dish; it is served with paprika, cloves and other spices for most holiday feasts.
- The value for food is not only pulp, but also its decoction, in saturation with useful substances it is not inferior to concentrated meat broth.
White boletus is not often found in the forest, however, every mushroom picker should pay attention to it. This species gives up excellent taste characteristics, and with regular use it can improve health and prevent the appearance of many ailments.