How to grow spirea in Siberia: features and recommendations
Japanese Spirea has always attracted landscape design lovers with its unusual beauty, lush, flowering, unpretentious care and planting. Due to the high aesthetic qualities and plasticity, the culture can serve as a hedge or a border, and also act as the main emphasis in floral arrangements. Which of the plant varieties is better to choose for cultivation in Siberia, and what is the agricultural technology of caring for the culture - more in the article.
The choice of varieties for planting in Siberia
Today, there are a large number of varieties of perennial spirea shrubs, while most of them are suitable for cultivation in Siberia. The plant is unpretentious in care, able to adapt perfectly to the environment, with proper care and compliance with basic agricultural practices, can bloom abundantly even in the Siberian climate.
Did you know? The name "spirea" comes from the Greek language and means "spiral". The decision to name this culture came because of the spiral growth of branches.
The most frost-resistant varieties of spirea are:
- Gray Grefshame. The culture is presented in the form of a compact, densely branched shrub, up to 1.5–2 m high, which is characterized by the presence of drooping arched shoots of red-brown color. During the flowering period, which falls in mid-May and lasts 1.5 months, small flowers with a diameter of 1 cm, with a terry surface, collected in neat inflorescences are formed on the bush.
- Wangutta A hybrid variety that can boast excellent winter hardiness and undemanding. Vangutta is a fairly large shrub, up to 2 m, which has long, sprawling, dense branches, abundantly covered with green leaves of a three-lobed, serrated shape. From the second half of June, the culture delights with abundant flowering, which is created by small, up to 0.6 cm in diameter, flowers collected in hemispherical inflorescences.
- Loosestrife. The variety belongs to erect shrubs in which reddish shoots reach a height of 2 m. The green mass of the crop is represented by numerous pointed leaves, up to 10 cm long, the surface of which has a bluish color, and the lower part is dark green. The flowers of the loosestrife spirea are small, pink or white in color, form pyramidal inflorescences up to 20 cm long. In nature, the culture can often be found on the banks of reservoirs.
- Japanese Shirobana. One of the most beautiful shrubs, striking in its decorativeness and aesthetics. It grows up to 60–80 cm, and the crown diameter is 1.2 m. On the shoots of the culture there are small, narrow-shaped lanceolate sheets of dark green color. Flowering of the plant starts in late July and is accompanied by the appearance of a large number of small white or pink flowers on the shrub.
- Oak leaf. One of the universal plants that can grow on any soil, including rocky ones. The described variety is widely used in Siberia and the Far East. Oak-leaved spirea is a small-sized shrub with medium shoots that are covered with green leaves. Flowering culture does not last long - from the end of July to the end of August. During this period, small cream-colored flowers appear on the bush, creating beautiful spherical brushes.
How to plant?
The technology for planting spirea in Siberia is not particularly difficult for gardeners, however, it is accompanied by a number of rules, the observance of which is a guarantee of the survival of the plant and its qualitative further development.
Preparing planting material
The key to a strong, healthy spirea is a fresh and high-quality planting material, which immediately before planting must be properly prepared.
When choosing a seedling, experts advise to pay attention to:
- The roots Root processes must be strong, elastic, healthy, without dry, damaged, diseased areas, traces of rot or fungal diseases.
- Shoots. Branches should be flexible, healthy, without foliage, with “live”, but not swollen buds.
The best option is to buy seedlings in containers that can be planted on the site at any time.
Before planting a plant in open ground, it is necessary to prepare it:
- shorten too long root shoots, trim dry and lifeless;
- shorten the ground part by 1/3 of the shoot length;
- immediately before planting, treat the roots with a clay mash.
Important! It is difficult for a layman to distinguish the grade of spirea, therefore, the purchase of planting material must be made in specialized nurseries or from proven distributors.
Choosing a place to land
Particular attention should be paid to choosing the best place for spirea. It belongs to light-loving plants, therefore, prefers to grow in well-lit, sunny areas, protected from cold winds and drafts. An ideal option would be an elevated place with a groundwater table of at least 1.5 m.
The land for the culture should be light, nutritious, well pass water and air. When carrying out planting in the spring, a pit for seedlings is prepared in the fall, while the soil is fertilized with organic means or complex mineral preparations.
In Siberia, Japanese spirea seedlings are allowed to be planted in open ground both in spring and autumn, depending on what period the plant blooms. For early flowering, the end of August - the beginning of September is suitable, for late flowering - April-May.
The technology for planting planting material is carried out in several stages:
- dig a recess with a minimum size of 50 × 50 cm;
- part of the seized soil is mixed with one part of sand, one part of peat and two parts of leaf soil;
- the bottom of the recess is lined with a layer of drainage of expanded clay or broken brick;
- from above, the drainage layer is covered with fertile soil;
- a seedling is lowered into a hole, the root processes are gently straightened;
- the plant is covered with soil so that the neck of the root remains on the surface by 4-6 cm;
- around the trunk circle a ditch is formed into which the settled water is poured;
- when moisture is absorbed, the circle is sprinkled with soil, mulched with peat.
When landing several copies, the distance between them should be at least 0.5 m, between the rows - 0.4 m.
Proper and timely care for Japanese spirea provides persistent, abundant flowering of the culture and its excellent decorative qualities. It is worth noting that caring for the described plant is quite simple and is based on the implementation of basic agricultural techniques.
Watering and feeding
The culture prefers moderate watering, which is carried out as the topsoil dries. The lack of moisture, as well as its excess, equally negatively affects the condition of the shrub: with excessive moisture, rotting of the root processes is observed, with a deficiency, a loss of decorativeness due to the rapid withering of the flowers. In the hot period, the bushes are watered at least twice a month, using 10 l of water per plant.
Spirea responds well to systematic top dressing, which is carried out three times during the growing season. The first time the culture is fertilized in early spring, using nitrogen-containing preparations that activate the growth of green mass.In the middle of summer, minerals based on potassium and phosphorus are introduced, and in the autumn, potassium-phosphorus preparations are used to fertilize the plants, which have a beneficial effect on the plant's immune system and allow it to prepare for the coming winter.
Spirea is a shrub that is characterized by a high growth rate. For one growing season, it gives an increase in shoots from 10 to 15 cm. That is why the crop lends itself to annual pruning and shaping. In early spring, sanitary circumcision is carried out by removing old, broken, damaged, diseased shoots.
Important! Rejuvenating pruning is carried out in several stages, since pruning all the branches at once can greatly weaken the bush and prevent it from resuming.
Next, proceed to the formation of the crown:
- remove too thin branches or shoots growing inward;
- shoots with leaves that do not match the color of the variety are harvested;
- in low-growing varieties, shoots are cut to two buds;
- cut the branches so that the crown takes on a symmetrical shape.
At the age of seven, anti-aging pruning is performed, during which all old shoots are removed, leaving only no more than seven young branches.
Despite the fact that spirea is winter-hardy and is able to withstand even Siberian frosts, experts advise insulating the bush for the winter.
Did you know? Spiraea shoots contain a rare substance - salicin glycoside, which serves as the main raw material for the production of the familiar drug aspirin.
- the shoots of the plant are neatly tied with an elastic, not tight rope;
- connected branches are bent to the soil and fixed by means of special V-shaped mounts;
- the bush is covered with a layer of foliage or covered with "breathing" material;
- in winter, the culture is sprinkled with a layer of snow.
To warm the undersized varieties, it is enough to simply cover them with a snowball in the winter.
Experienced gardeners practice three effective methods of breeding spirea:
- Seminal. A similar method is suitable for growing hybrid varieties. Special containers are prepared for planting seeds, which are filled with a substrate of peat and sand. Seed material is sown in the tank, the structure is covered with a film or glass on top to create a greenhouse effect, and placed in a well-lit place. After the appearance of the first shoots, the film is removed, and plantings continue to be looked after, systematically watered. After three full leaves are formed on the seedlings, it is transplanted into separate pots.
- Cuttings. One of the easiest ways to propagate a crop is considered to be cuttings. Cuttings of early flowering varieties are cut at the beginning of the summer season, late flowering - at the end of October. Choose some of the strongest, strongest and healthiest shoots, cut them off, then divide them into several cuttings so that each receives 5 leaves. Small cuts are made from the bottom of the shoots, the branches are placed in the solution of any growth stimulator, for example, epin. The substrate is poured into the prepared containers and the cuttings are planted at an angle of 45 °. The landing is covered with a film and transferred to a shaded room. Twice a day, the cuttings moisturize. For the winter season, shoots are dug into the ground in the garden. In the spring, after the appearance of the leaves, they are planted in a permanent place.
- Layering. Breeding spirea layers, which is carried out in the spring, is considered the most effective method. On the shrub, choose the strongest and healthiest side branches, bend them to the soil, after doing small sections. Sprouts are sprinkled on top of the soil so that only the top remains on the surface. In autumn, the shoot is removed, cut into the required number of shoots and planted in a constant place.
Japanese Spirea is a beautiful, aesthetically attractive shrub that perfectly survives even in the harsh climatic conditions of Siberia. In order for the plant to please gardeners with lush, flowering flowering, it is necessary to select a suitable variety and provide the culture with competent, timely care, which consists in moisturizing, feeding, pruning and protection from pests.