Pereberezovik: types and names, where and when it occurs
Mushrooms are representatives of the kingdom of wildlife, which were highlighted in a separate section of botany called mycology, as they combine the attributes of both the plant and animal world. For example, fungi do not participate in the process of photosynthesis, like plants, and do not have such digestive organs as animals, but they feed on organic substances. This article describes the boletus boletus fungus, its beneficial properties and differences from poisonous counterparts, and also considers options for its cultivation in the country.
The birch bark is a spongy mushroom of the genus Leccinum, which has excellent nutritional and taste qualities, and all representatives of this genus are edible. In the mushroom kingdom, there are only forty species of boletus.
Did you know? The boletus grows very fast. The lifespan of this fungus is only 10 days. And he becomes “mature” after 6 days.
The leg of the boletus has a rod-shaped shape, slightly expanding downward. The color of the legs depends on the species and is white or grayish-white, the entire surface is dotted with plates of gray, brown or even black. The length of the legs of an adult instance reaches 15 cm, and its flesh is more fibrous and stiff.
Types and Names
The pereberezovik belongs to the Boletovy family and has many species and subspecies.
The most common representatives of this family are:
- common boletus,
- white or swamp birch,
- harsh birch,
- the brown cowberry is gray, black and pinkish.
The main distinguishing features of the species:
- Places of growth - well-lit areas of young birch or mixed forest with a predominance of birch and aspen.
- Hat shape - in the form of a hemisphere in a young mushroom and a pillow-shaped species in a mature one. The pulp is dense, has a rich mushroom aroma.
- Leg stiff and fleshy, covered with a pattern of plates - flakes of various colors. Just like a hat, it has a rich aroma and is suitable for eating (many gourmets prefer this part of the mushroom).
Did you know? A birch bark, like any forest mushroom, forms a symbiosis with a tree under which it grows, protecting it from pests and taking amino acids and carbohydrates from its root system.
Botanical description of the most common types:
- common boletus: hat brown-red on a cast fleshy white straight leg;
- swamp birch: whitish-gray hat on a thin, sometimes curved leg;
- harsh birch: a hat of dark shades of brown on a massive white leg, thickening below;
- gray, black and pink birch bark: a hat (depending on type) of black, brown or beige-pink color on a white elastic leg.
Where and at what time it grows
The birch tree is demanding on humidity and sunlight, therefore these mushrooms grow in deciduous, mixed and coniferous forests with the advantage of birches and aspen. In addition, birch trees, like porcini mushrooms, can be grown in the summer cottage, where there are birches, bushes, a lot of light and moisture. The picking season for the boletus boar begins in May of the early warm summer with thunderstorms and morning mists and lasts until September.
Places of growth of the most common species:
- common birch, harsh birch - well-lit edges and forest glades deep in the deciduous forest and young birch;
- Swamp birch - found in marshy areas with very moist soil;
- gray birch, black and pink, grows mainly in well-lit areas of a birch grove.
Taste qualities and useful properties
Along with porcini mushroom, it is rightfully considered to be one of the noblest mushrooms with a unique mushroom aroma, high nutritional value while at the same time low in calories, it does not lose its taste and useful properties during heat treatment, pickling and drying.
Important! Mushrooms contain proteins of both animal and plant origin, being an excellent substitute for meat.
- Useful properties of boletus:
- The main value lies in the large, up to 35%, protein content - a highly nutritious substance consisting of amino acids essential for humans, such as arginine, glutamine, isoleucine.
- It is also worth noting the high content in this representative of the kingdom of mushrooms of phosphoric acid, which is involved in the proper formation of the musculoskeletal system and human nervous system and the development of the necessary enzymes to prevent kidney disease, mucous membranes and regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood.
- It contains complexes of vitamins of groups B, C, D, E, which classifies it as a group of antioxidant products that slow down the process of premature aging and the negative influence of free radicals - the main reason for the development of low-grade tumors.
- It is a generous source of fiber, so necessary for the healthy functioning of the digestive system and the removal of toxins from the body.
Video: useful and medicinal properties of a boletus
How to distinguish from poisonous doubles
A boletus boletus has a poisonous double called a false boletus or bile fungus. Outwardly, it practically does not differ from a boletus, but it has a pronounced bitter taste. Distinguishing it from a true mushroom is quite difficult, but possible.
Important! The poisonous double boletus is not deadly, however, if you doubt the correct choice, it is better not to touch it with your bare hands when inspecting.
An experienced mushroom picker applies the following steps to recognize bile fungus:
- Place of growth. The antipode chooses a habitat near stumps, dry trees, ditches and in dark forests with a predominance of conifers.
- Condition. The false birch bark is so bitter that neither worms nor insects deserve it, so it does not have defects, wormholes, or other flaws.
- Hat and leg. Very similar to the noble representative of the third kingdom, however, upon careful examination, some differences can be revealed: they are larger than the original; the leg is dotted not with a scaly, but with a mesh pattern resembling the human vascular system; the pulp has an oil structure of a pinkish color.
- Physical impact. When pressed or cut, the flesh takes on a pink hue, while the color of the flesh does not change for a true boletus, it only slightly darkens.
When and how to collect boletus
You can collect a birch tree a few days after the May warm thunderstorm, when in the mornings a damp fog reigns in the morning. The apogee of gathering is moderately hot and dry July, August and September.
Did you know? The first fog of summer is a sure mushroom omen.
However, it is possible to distinguish such collection periods for individual species:
- common boletus, harsh boletus - from June to October until the autumn cooling;
- Swamp birch - September;
- pink birch - from August to September.
The frequency of collection varies as follows: two to three weeks of collection falls on the same period of calm.
There are several generally accepted rules for picking mushrooms, which novice mushroom pickers should know, they will not interfere with professionals with an impressive experience of “silent hunting”:
- The mushroom, as a powerful pump, absorbs organic matter from the environment, accumulating them. In order to avoid not only poisoning, but also exacerbation of sluggish chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, you cannot pick mushrooms growing near roads, factories, cities, etc. The mushroom picker, for example, absorbs and accumulates cadmium, which is contained in the soil and atmosphere. after a forest fire, in the ashes.
- The best time to gather is early morning before dawn. If possible, you can make a preliminary walk through the forest, walk along the trails, examine the forest edges and trees, so to speak, work out a road map. Following the advice of experienced mushroom pickers, the search should begin with the fringes, and not with deep forest thickets.
- Keep children in a constant field of view to prevent them from tasting or smelling unknown mushrooms and berries.
- It is also not worth picking mushrooms in paper, cellophane bags or buckets, for this special wicker baskets, bast baskets, backpacks made of natural materials are more suitable. It is better to lay on the bottom lined with freshly torn grass with the leg up to prevent damage to the pulp and air.
- Carefully cut or twist the mushroom out of the soil for better safety during transportation and to prevent debris from getting into the cut and hat. The mushroom knife should be with a rounded end, not double-edged, with a bright handle and best of all with a cover attached to a belt or basket.
- It is better to collect young, strong and elastic specimens. Do not fill the basket with overgrown, old, wormy, slightly rotten mushrooms, as well as those that are not familiar or cause even a shadow of doubt.
- Harvested crops must be processed immediately after harvesting, as the birch tree quickly deteriorates, worms and has little storage.
Pereberezovik is the undisputed leader in nutritional and taste qualities, second only to the cep. Eating this product will not cause any harm to an adult healthy person, provided that the harvest was carried out in an ecologically clean area, well-known norms and rules and the like were applied in the process of preparing and harvesting. However, this product is considered difficult to digest due to the presence of chitin in it, which is a strong allergen.
Did you know? The largest living creature in the world — it is a mushroom belonging to the species Armilaria ostoyae (honey mushroom) and growing in Mahler National Park, Oregon (USA). The mushroom picker of this representative of the third kingdom occupies 890 hectares, 1220 football fields can occupy such an area. Super Mushroom Age — about 2400 years old.
There are several contraindications for use, namely:
- can not be eaten by children under three years of age due to the high protein content that can disrupt the child's digestive system;
- people with individual intolerance and allergies;
- people with a history of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, chronic pancreatitis, dysbiosis.
How to plant and grow a mushroom in the country
Few advanced gardeners manage to grow and propagate a boletus in a summer cottage. This business is troublesome, requiring efforts and some knowledge, but, believe me, the result is worth it. One of the conditions is the presence of trees in the garden, the ideal option is several birches.But the garden, where there are other deciduous and coniferous trees, as well as shaded and moist corners, is also suitable. The following are the two most commonly used methods.
The method of growing using mushroom mycelium (mycelium)
The expected time of the crop is about 3 months.
Important! You should not allow even a single drying out of the mycelium, it is detrimental to forest mushrooms that you plant on a summer cottage.
Stages of planting and growing:
- Selection and transfer of mushroom mycelium from the forest. This is the most important stage in which there are secrets to success. The location of the mycelium should be in an ecologically clean area. A layer with a depth of not more than 35 cm is suitable for carrying. The difficulty is not to disturb the structure of the mycelium, which is why it is better to cut off several small layers than one large-sized one. If the mycelium is taken under a forest birch, then it is necessary to plant it in a summer cottage under a birch. The same goes for pines, spruces, aspen and other trees.
- Preparing the landing site. A layer of soil 30–40 cm deep, suitable in size for each individual layer of forest mycelium, is cut off under the selected trees from the shadow side at a distance of half a meter. The bottom of each recess is lined with a ten-centimeter layer of leaves, bark and sawdust of birch, you can also put bird feathers, which are very rich in phosphorus. The resulting layer should be abundantly watered.
- Stacking mycelium. At the bottom of the recess, carefully, trying not to damage the structure, a forest mycelium is laid. From above it is covered with the same layer of leaves, sawdust and shredded birch bark, which was covered with the bottom.
- Care. In hot, dry weather, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture, so every day the place of planting of the mycelium is watered to avoid the formation of a dry crust on the surface of the soil. Watering is desirable to produce rain or stagnant water.
Video: how to grow brownberries in the country
Method for growing using mushroom spores
The expected harvest time is next summer.
- Preparing the landing site. It is produced similarly to the first method, but the depth of cut is not more than 30 cm.
- Cooking a special mixture. 2 tablespoons of crushed overripe mushrooms, one tablespoon of flour and one tablespoon of edible gelatin (in a proportion of 1 liter of water) are added to the water, after which a special solution is obtained that also contains mushroom spores. There is also an easier way to get spores for growing mushrooms in the country: they collect rainwater in wooden dishes and put on the hats of old overripe birch trees. After a day, the solution is filtered.
- Pour mixture prepared by one of the above methods, places of cultivation of "home" boletus and carefully cover with leaves.
- Care. Similar to the first method.
Brown birch trees are very tasty and healthy mushrooms. Knowing their features and knowing how to distinguish from poisonous doubles, you will protect yourself from possible poisoning. And with a great desire, you can try to grow these mushrooms in your summer cottage.