Description of Spirea Shrub
Ornamental shrubs are an excellent option for decorating a personal plot. They are less whimsical than flowers, but they look no worse. The main thing is to choose the right plant and comply with the standards for caring for it. The lush spirea bush looks very unusual on the garden plot. This plant will be discussed further.
Spirea - deciduous decorative shrub from the pink family. Some call him meadowsweet. Its height is 15–250 cm. It has a fibrous, widespread not deeply root system. The bush is formed from erect, sprawling branches. They can also be creeping. The bark on them is from light to dark brown, peeling longitudinally.
Young shoots can be light green, yellowish, reddish or brownish. The kidneys appear small, no more than 5-10 mm long, singly or double, round, slightly elongated. The leaves are narrow-lanceolate, can be almost round. They have 3-5 blades.
In spring inflorescences, umbrella, sessile or corymbose brushes, in summer - simple or complex scutes. Flowers are bisexual, rarely dioecious. Spring species bloom in white, summer species - from white to pink-red. Those that sometimes bloom after all - with shades of purple. Spring species do not differ in long flowering, but they come into it together and take cover abundantly in color. Summer also bloom violently, except for this - for a long time.
Fruits are multi-seeded leaflets cracking at the seams. They contain flat brown seeds. Length - 1.5–2 mm. It takes 1.5–2 months to mature.
Did you know? For spirea, it is characteristic in the first bloom to be covered with individual inflorescences with unbroken buds.
Various types of spirea can be found in the forest-steppe, forest, semi-desert zones and in the subalpine zone of the mountains of the Northern Hemisphere. In Asia, to the south of all, shrubs can be found in the Himalayas. In North America, in Mexico.
Most members of the genus are drought and frost tolerant, prefer to grow on fertile soil.
Existing species are divided into two groups according to flowering time. It is worth considering in more detail the most striking and popular representatives of them.
Important! Spiraea angustifolia is protected in nature reserves.
In this group there are such types:
- Gray - A large branched bush reaching 200 cm in height. His shoots are felt, ribbed. Covered with gray-green foliage pointed on both sides. It blooms with snow-white flowers collected in loose shields scattered throughout the shoot. At the top, they are sessile, slightly lower - on the petioles. The flowering period falls in May, the fruits can be harvested in June. The species is hybrid; therefore, it is not propagated by seeds. It is used in bouquet compositions. It is distinguished by good winter resistance.
- Argut - Another tall, sprawling plant 200 cm high. It differs in narrow, jagged foliage of dark green color. Its size is not large - 40 mm. The flowers are snow-white, small, 8 mm in diameter, collected in umbrella inflorescences. The species is growing very slowly. Adds 20 cm each year. Known as the most spectacular spring-flowering species. Flowers so abundantly cover the branches that they bend under their weight in an arc. This gives an extraordinary look to the bush. Thanks to this, the plant looks great in landscape design as a single bush, and in composition with other shrubs or as a hedge. It is also a hybrid.
- Wangutta - reaches both in height and in a girth of 200 cm. Its branches are sprawling, beautifully curved down. Due to this, the crown is cascading.The leaves are serrated, lobed, on the outside of the green color, on the inside - dull gray. Shoots are densely dotted with snow-white flowers in hemispherical inflorescences. Flowering lasts several weeks. Sometimes there is a second wave falling in August, but less abundant. The fruits ripen in October. The appearance differs in unpretentiousness, frost resistance. Looks impressive in compositions with pines, spruces, firs.
- Gorodchataya - low bush, up to 100 cm, with a loose crown. The leaves are grayish-green, oblong. Among other species, it is distinguished by the ridge of the leaf plate, which is divided by three veins, clearly visible in the lower part. Spectacular flowers with a yellowish tinge sit in wide inflorescences. It can bloom up to 20 days. Fruits appear in July. This type of spirea forms a lot of root shoots. Because of this, it is not often used in gardening. But in parks, forest parks, gardens, she is a welcome guest.
Summer-flowering species are covered with inflorescences on young shoots that appeared this year. The next year, the tops of last year's shoots dry out and new branches with inflorescences replace them.
Did you know? 1091 Spirea — an asteroid named after the eponymous plant genus.
Representatives of summer species:
- Japanese - A very beautiful bush formed by felt-lowered shoots that become bare over time. They are covered by oblong-ovate foliage, the upper side of which is green, and the lower side is bluish. When it only appears from the kidneys, it has a reddish tint. By deciduous season acquires a variety of autumn colors. The flowering period stretches throughout the summer (45 days). At this time, the shrub pleases the eye with pink-red flowers. In this form there are several varieties, the differences between which are in size and flowering: Little Princesses, Shirobana, Macrofill.
- White - An unusual type of spirea with a ribbed bush with lowered shoots. They are covered with red-brown bark. Leaves open at the ends of branches, pointed, 70 mm long. Flowers appear in pyramidal inflorescences. The flowering period falls on July-August. The fruits ripen in October.
- Birch leaf - An interesting name for the plant is associated with its similarity to foliage with birch. It is a low (60 cm), lush shrub of spherical shape. Ribbed shoots, can often be curved in a zigzag pattern. The leaves are covered in mid-April, and lose it at the end of October. At this time, it is saturated yellow. Spirea begins to bloom in June. Her inflorescences are dense, formed by a large number of small white, slightly pink tinted flowers.
- Loosestrife - tall erect shrub about 200 cm high. Its shoots are covered with red-yellow bark and lanceolate, elongated leaves with a sharp end. The upper part of the leaf plate is dark green, the lower part is slightly lighter. Flowers can be either white or pink. Appear on short peduncles collected in panicles. The bush is very fond of fresh, moist soils. In the flowering period, it enters only in the fourth year of life. They are good at decorating the garden around the perimeter.
Many species of spirea are good honey plants and contain various beneficial substances. Therefore, they are often used for medical purposes.
Medicinal and beneficial properties
The greatest healing abilities are known for loosestrife. It contains:
- ascorbic acid;
- essential oils;
- Thanks to this composition, the plant has the following beneficial effects on the body:
- increases immunity and strengthens the walls of blood vessels;
- prevents cell aging;
- acts as an antipyretic, analgesic;
- possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic action;
- accelerates wound healing;
- helps to cope with indigestion.
For medicinal purposes use foliage, young shoots, inflorescences, bark, buds, root system.
From the reviews we can conclude that Spirea has no contraindications for use except the individual intolerance of its components. But since this is not a completely confirmed fact, self-medication is not advisable so as not to harm yourself. Be sure to consult a doctor.
There are three ways of propagating spirea: seed, layering, cuttings. Read more about each next.
This method is extremely rare, since it is very difficult to collect seeds, and besides this, their germination is very low.. In addition, you need to wait a long time until the plant is ready to bear fruit.
Important! If you still decide on this method of reproduction, choose non-hybrid varieties. Germination rate of their seed is 75–80%.
For breeding you need:
- Wait until seed bolls are formed and ripen (will turn brown).
- Have time to collect the seed before uncovering the fetus.
- Arrange for ripening in a warm place for 14 days.
- Sowing should be carried out early in spring, like ordinary seedlings, under a film.
- Classic care: watering, top dressing with minerals, loosening.
- At the end of summer, with the advent of the second true leaves, you can dive seedlings into the ground.
- In the cold season, cover the bed with spruce branches, foliage and sprinkle with plenty of snow.
- With the advent of spring to land in a permanent place.
The properties of the plant are such that it is best to propagate it by layering. Get them is not difficult.
Important! It is advisable to choose the longest branch to get as many young animals as possible.
Here is a detailed description of the actions:
- Choose a young bush (2-3 years) and select a young shoot with blossoming foliage on it. It is most convenient that this is an extreme branch.
- Gently scratch the shoot with a sharp knife in a place where it will come in contact with the ground.
- Bend the branch to the soil, dig a ditch under it and lay it in it.
- Water abundantly, secure with a wire clip and sprinkle with soil.
- In spring and summer, regularly carry out irrigation procedures and introduce nutrients.
- In the autumn, a seedling should appear, which can be transferred to a permanent place. To make the roots stronger, transplantation can be done in the spring.
Propagation by cuttings is a little more difficult. Difficulties associated with the need to carefully and continuously care for planting material. But this method allows gardeners to get an exact copy of the mother plant with full preservation of its characteristics. Cuttings are harvested in spring varieties in early July, and in summer at the end of this month.
Did you know? The Latin name Spiraea (Spiraea) comes from the ancient Greek «σπειρα»which means «spiral».
Description of the procedure:
- You need to choose an annual branch, partially lignified.
- It must be cut into pieces so that each contains 5 sheets.
- Its lower edge is freed from foliage, and the rest is cut off by half.
- A container with a biostimulant is being prepared, into which future plants are immersed with their lower end for 10-12 hours.
- Then the slice at this end is treated with a root forming mixture.
- The box is filled with fertile soil mixed with sand.
- Cuttings are planted in it and watered abundantly.
- Each branch is covered with a glass cap or a film is stretched over the entire box.
- Future spirea are located in partial shade in the open air. Best placed under a sprawling tree.
- All summer you need to maintain moist soil. For this, cuttings are sprayed 2-3 times a day with water.
- Before the cold, the box is dug into the ground, mulched by foliage and covered with a wooden box.
- After the snow melts, the box is removed. With the advent of young shoots, seedlings can be planted in a permanent place.
An unusual perennial shrub perfectly decorates park areas, adds zest to the landscape design of personal plots.It is easy to care for him, he tolerates cold winters, so you can use it for decorative purposes in any climatic zone.