Description of gladiolus flower
Beautiful autumn flowers of various colors look great both in tall bouquets and in landscape design. The word Gladius from Latin means a small sword. It provided the basis for the name “gladiator”. The name of the plant in Hebrew translates as "sword". Therefore, in Russia he is called a fencer. How this beautiful flower grows and propagates, its types, varieties and subtleties of care will be discussed later.
Description of the gladiolus plant
Multi-sorted fennel plant. Varieties differ from each other in the shape and size of the flower, smell, flowering time and place of growth.
How does gladiolus grow
For normal growth, planting bulbs must be of the same size, as large plants can inhibit smaller ones. Before planting, they must be peeled and inspected. The plant will have large flowers if only one sprout is left.
Important! Do not combine large-flowered gladioli with small-flowered and high varieties with low in landscape design. Small and low flowers will lose their appeal.
The rest must be broken off. The corm is ready for planting if the size of the sprout is 15 cm. If necessary, they are placed in a warm bright place for germination. The distance between the bulbs and between the rows is 15–25 cm. Planting is necessary in a checkerboard pattern to a depth of about 15 cm.
Bouquets of flowers look good on flower beds in the garden. To do this, they should be planted in a circle with a diameter of up to 30 cm at a distance of 15–20 cm. After they bloom, you need to stick a rod for support in the center of the circle and tie up the whole bouquet around it.
Compositions with bouquets of growing flowers in the markets are beautiful. To do this, you need to choose large pots, since the length of the roots of the plant reaches 30 cm. The number of planted bulbs depends on the size of the pot, approximately 6-8 pieces. In landscape design, the skewer is planted along with dahlias and phlox. Then the emphasis is on the upper part, and the bare bottom is hidden by low-growing flowers.
Video: Planting gladioli in a pot
Where it grows and what it smells
The geography of the growth of gladiolus from southern Africa to Eurasia. The birthplace of this plant is considered to be southeast Africa. Under natural conditions, on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, in Kazakhstan, central and eastern Europe, you can find a tiled gladiolus.
Did you know? Gladiolus can be considered a medicinal plant. The concentration of ascorbic acid in its leaves is the same as in the rosehips.
It has flowers in diameter about 10 cm in white, yellow, pink or light purple. There are not as many on the stem as ordinary gladiolus. The approximate amount is up to 5 pieces and bloom gradually. Therefore, it is necessary to plant it in group bouquets. Then she looks very expressively on the flowerbed and gives a bright color spot. It is necessary to sit and take care of the ardentone as well as for ordinary gladioli.
For a long time, breeders have been fighting for the cultivation of varieties, not only with improved external characteristics, but also with a greater aroma strength. So the glanter was bred. It is a hybrid between gladiolus and acetonter; therefore, it perfectly combines the signs of both.
Which family belongs to
Skewer - an onion plant from the Iris family has a tall stem with many flowers and thin leaves. It got its name due to the shape of the leaves.
Varieties depending on the shape of the flower are divided into:
1-row inflorescence; 2 - double row; 3 - next; 4-sided; 5- spiral; 6- type of flower gandawenzis; 7- type of flower edel; 8- simple perianth; 9 - corrugated perianth form; 10 - folded shape; 11- dissected form
Varieties according to the size of the flower are small, medium, large-flowered and giant. According to the flowering period, they are divided into:
- 70–75 days from planting to flowering - very early;
- 76–80 days - early;
- 81–85 days - medium early;
- 86–90 days are average;
- 91–95 days - medium late;
- more than 96 are late.
Did you know? In the XVII-XVIII centuries a decoction of gladioli was used for medicinal purposes as a diuretic and painkiller.
At the place of origin, the plants are divided into European type and American. The European is characterized by a wavy or even edge of the flower, twisted inflorescence, the number of flowers is 15-17 pieces. American mainly includes large and medium flowered varieties. This type is characterized by a corrugated or folded flower with 20–22 flowers.
Video: Varieties of gladioli
The corm of the plant is covered with scales, has a flattened round shape and a size of 3-10 cm in diameter. Its color may be different. Every year it is updated. The stems are self-growing, about a meter high, entwined with thin linear leaves of a turquoise-green hue. Funnel-shaped flowers are collected in spike-shaped inflorescences placed along the stem.
The approximate number of colors is 16–22 pieces. Their size can reach 20 cm in diameter. Flowers grow from a six-sided funnel-shaped perianth. After flowering, the fruit appears: a box with many brown seeds. Propagated by bulbs or children.
Gladiolus - perennial or annual
Gladiolus is a perennial plant that forms a new stem, leaves and inflorescences every year. Although it is perennial, it is dug up for the winter and stored in a cool, dry room until spring. By autumn, he forms a young corm.
The appearance of small children around her is common. Their number per bulb is 20-30 pcs. From large tubers, you can get flowers in the first year of planting, from small tubers - in a year.
Types of gladiolus
The genus of fennel includes 280 species. The main ones are:
- Gladiolus baumii (lat.) is described by the German botanist Herman Harms (1870–1942) in 1903. It is distinguished by numerous sinewy leaves, a one-sided spike-shaped inflorescence and a perianth of a pinkish hue.
- Gladiolus commúnis (lat.) - ordinary fennel. It differs in leaves with smooth edges placed in two rows on the stem. The flowers are purple-red, in the middle with white stripes.
- Gladiolus imbricátus (lat.) - fenced-in fenders. Has a double corm, broad-linear leaves, a one-sided spike-shaped dense inflorescence of pink-purple color.
- Gladiolus murielae (lat.) - fencer Muriel or acidanthera bicolor. It is characterized by two long xiphoid leaf blades, individual flowers with pointed white petals with a dark purple middle. It has a pleasant smell.
- Gladiolus palūstris (lat.) - swamp fenders. It differs in egg-shaped tuber and spike-shaped inflorescence of bright pink color. It grows in the marshy territories of central and southern Europe. In the Russian Federation is listed in the Red Book.
- Gladiolus ténuis (lat.) - thin fennel. It has a pair of scaly leaves and greatly reduced scaly bracts, unilateral spike-shaped inflorescences with closely related flowers and pink perianths. The species is listed in the Red Books of Ukraine and the Russian Federation.
After crossing various species, breeders have bred many hybrids.Each variety of garden skewers is a hybrid species and is subject to registration. It has been held since 1945 by the North American Gladiolus Council. Each new variety is assigned a digital code.
It characterizes a flower (its size and color). In the first place, the size is on a six-point scale, in the second is the color (from 0 to 9). Information about color intensity and additional coloring is encoded in the third digit. Further, the hyphenation period indicates the flowering period, two digits of the year in which the variety is grown and the name of the breeder.On average, a variety lives about 10 years. With repeated breeding, defects appear in the characteristics and this affects its lifespan. Every day there are new varieties with a more unusual color, corrugation and other features.
Video: Digital code of gladioli
Careful planting and plant care
Even a budding grower will be able to plant and care for these flowers. To grow beautiful plants with long peduncles, follow some simple recommendations:
- Plant bulbs in early May on a sunny spot. On the garden where you are going to plant gladioli, add a complex of fertilizers: 1 m² for 1 tbsp. a spoon of urea and double superphosphate, as well as a handful of wood ash.
- The skewer loves regular, plentiful irrigation without stagnation of water on the bed and loosening of the soil. Beds with flowers must be constantly weeded so as not to introduce fungal diseases with weeds.
- The first dressing can be done when 2-3 leaves appear. Use 2 tbsp. tablespoons of urea in 10 liters of water. To obtain large corms, it is necessary during this period to top-dress with boric acid (2 g of boric acid per 10 l of water).
- The second top dressing is carried out when the peduncle began to grow. For this, 1.5 tbsp. tablespoons nitrofoski dissolved in 10 liters of water.
- The third top dressing after flowering is carried out in order to prepare the bulbs for storage. 1 tbsp. a spoon of crushed superphosphate, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate and 5 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water.
- Bulbs are dug in late September in dry weather. They are laid out in a dry place in one layer. After drying with a sharp knife, the stems are cut off leaving a stump of 2–4 cm.
- In order for the bulbs to be well stored, they must be completely dried for a month at room temperature. The old onion and roots are removed and stored in a cloth bag in a refrigerator or cellar.
How to breed gladioli
Plants propagate with the help of tubers - small children growing around the main bulb. They are dug up and stored together with large bulbs. In the spring, they are planted for germination on a bed to a depth of 5 cm in small ditches. In a year they will definitely bloom.
Important! Plants grown in the garden from tuber buds are more adapted to growth under these conditions and are more resistant to diseases.
Planting material is constantly in need of updating, therefore, in order to preserve the plant, one should not ignore the planting of children. Before planting, you do not need to peel the husks from the children. It is enough to press with your fingers until a small click occurs, that is, violate the integrity of the husk for easier germination of the sprout.
Diseases, pests and how to deal with them
Bacterial, fungal viral diseases, together with pests, threaten the growth of beautiful skewers. Plants can be sick:
- Fusarium - A disease caused by fusarium species. Another name is dry rot. It causes rotting of the roots and wilting of the plant.
- Gray or hard rot - fungal disease. It is characterized by yellowing of the tips of the leaves, the appearance of various spots on them.
- Scab - bacterial disease. It can be recognized by red-brown spots on the bottom of the plant.
- Mosaic - viral disease. Leaves and flowers become striped and rough not characteristic of the species.
- Jaundice - viral disease. Leaves turn yellow and flowers greenish.
- Doggystyle - bacterial disease. The characteristic of which are growths on tubers.
Fusarium, rot and scab are easier to prevent than to deal with them. This must be done by inspecting the tubers during planting and plants during the growth period. If the leaves turned yellow or spots appeared on them, then it is necessary to determine the disease by comparing with the photo of the affected plants.
In case of viral diseases, tubers and plants must be removed and burned. Helps in the fight against diseases and pests crop rotation. To do this, plant tubers every year in different places. For disinfection of the landing site, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, etc. are used.
Important! Areas overgrown with wheat grass have a beneficial effect on the reproduction of wireworms, so it is necessary to deal with it in the first place. Reducing the acidity of the soil with lime, chalk, ash or dolomite flour will also help.
Of the pests, the plant most often affects:
- Thrips - insects 1.5 mm in size of dark brown color. They have bright wings on their backs, so they spread easily. Thrips suck the juice from the leaves and they dry out. White strokes and black dots are clearly visible on the leaf blades. The buds of the affected plants do not bloom. In their middle, yellow-brown larvae can be seen. Also, insects can affect the bulb during storage, falling into the basement with the crop. When pests first appear, plants are treated with insecticides. Processing is repeated after 10-14 days until complete destruction. Infusions of garlic and tobacco also help deter pests. If the thrips are not destroyed by the period of digging the bulbs, they must be processed by soaking in an insecticide solution for 15 minutes. Dry well after.
- Wireworms - these are the larvae of nutcracker beetles. They can make moves in the bulbs through which fungi and bacteria enter, causing rot. You can fight a pest with the help of insecticides or folk remedies.
- Bears - large insects living in the earth, dark brown in color. Insecticides are used to control the pest. They are laid out in the holes when landing according to the instructions.
You can fight pests with the help of heat treatment of gladiolus tubers. Soak them for 10 minutes before planting. into water with a temperature of + 50 ° C. In order not to weld the seed, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the temperature regime.
Legend of the flower
Since the flower has been grown since ancient times, people managed to add legends and myths about it. According to one of them, gladioli grew out of the swords of brave warriors.
Did you know? The bulbs of gladioli even before our era were used as food. At first they were baked and ground with onions. Then cakes were made from this mass.
The cruel commander wanted to see a battle between friends. The reward for the winner was his return to his homeland. When the trumpets began to play, and the audience was ready to see the battle, friends stuck swords into the ground and hugged each other. "Why don't they fight?" - screamed angry spectators. The young men decided that it was better to die than to entertain the bloodthirsty audience. They were executed, and beautiful flowers grew on the site of the swords, which were named gladioli in their honor. To this day, they symbolize friendship, fidelity, nobility and memory of brave warriors.
The ancient plant gladiolus is shrouded in history and legends. It is a wonderful decoration for any flowerbed. Due to its unpretentiousness and easy care, it is grown by almost every grower. We just need to know some of the subtleties of this process and the bouquets on your flower beds will delight you with large healthy flowers of all kinds of colors.